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托福考试修辞性目的题解析

2014-07-28 15:49| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 托福备考中,考生肯定要做些真题,环球托福郭晨婷来世为考生详细讲述一些做题的技巧,希望对考生能够有所帮助。
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    托福备考中,考生肯定要做些真题,环球托福郭晨婷来世为考生详细讲述一些做题的技巧,希望对考生能够有所帮助。
    一、问题形式
  举例说明概述题,也叫例证题,被ETS称为“修辞目的题”(rhetorical purpose question),基本形式如下:
  The author uses X as an example of…
  Why does the author mention X?
  The author discusses X in paragraph 2 in order to…
    二、解题技巧
    举例的目的在于反映概述,所以这类题的一般解题技巧是:绕过例子看概述,对概述进行同义替换的就是正确答案。具体技巧如下:
  1. 例子说明概述
  举例说明概述题经常对应原文的举例for example。做题时可以先根据问题中的关键词确定例子的位置,再阅读例子前的那个句子,这个句子一般就是例子所说明的概述,也就是答案对应的地方。例如,
  …sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied-art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg…”
  Why does the author discuss the bronze statues of horses created by artists in the early Italian Renaissance ?
  ¡ To provide an example of a problem related to the laws of physics that a fine artist must overcome
  ¡ To argue that fine artists are unconcerned with the laws of physics
  ¡ To contrast the relative sophistication of modern artists in solving problems related to the laws of physics
  ¡ To note an exceptional piece of art constructed without the aid of technology
  根据问题中的关键词bronze statues of horses定位段末,这里有标志词for example,说明它是对前面所说的内容进行例证。前一句These are problems that must be overcome by the artist…就是概述:艺术家必须克服这些问题,因为这些问题破坏他们对艺术作品的构思。这里所说的问题就是上文谈论的物理规律对美术的限制,如必须考虑制作材料的物理特性。而本题对应的原文以例子说明这一点:由于铜的特性,马抬起的前腿下必须有支撑物。综上所述,例子说明它前面的概述,第一个选项符合此意,为正确答案。
  又如,
  One of the most puzzling aspects of the paintings is their location. Other rock paintings—for example, those of Bushmen in South Africa—are either located near cave entrances or completely in the open. Cave paintings in France and Spain, however, are in recesses and caverns far removed from original cave entrances.
  Why does the author mention Bushmen in South Africa in paragraph 2?
  To suggest that ancient artists from all over the world painted animals on rocks
  To contrast the location of their rock paintings to those found at Lascaux
  To support the claim that early artists worked in cramped spaces
  To give an example of other artists who painted in hidden locations
  与上一题类似,本题的例子Bushmen in South Africa在原文也有标志词for example,因此这一例子的目的是为了说明它前面的那句话,即这些绘画的位置令人费解。作者以对比的手法来说明这一点:Bushmen in South Africa的绘画常位于洞口或洞外,而法国和西班牙的洞穴绘画(本文所说的绘画)却位于远离最初洞口的深处。由此可见,Bushmen in South Africa的例子是为了说明Lascaux绘画位置的怪异。第二个选项符合此意,为正确答案。
      2. 例子与概述合二为一
  有时例子与概述合二为一,它们分别出现于从句和主句中,或者出现于同一个分句中。例如,
  Scholars offer three related but different opinions about the mysterious origin and significance of these paintings. One opinion is that the paintings were a record of seasonal migrations made by herds. Because some paintings were made directly over others, obliterating them, it is probable that a painting’s value ended with the migration it pictured. Unfortunately, this explanation fails to explain the hidden locations, unless the migrations were celebrated with secret ceremonies.
  Why does the author mention secret ceremonies?
  To present a common opinion held by many scholars
  To suggest a similarity between two opinions held by scholars
  To suggest a possible explanation for a weakness in an opinion expressed in the passage
  To give evidence that contradicts a major opinion expressed in the passage
  问题中的关键词secret ceremonies出现于段落末句的从句中:unless the migrations were celebrated with secret ceremonies。在同一句子的主句部分,作者指出:不幸的是,这一解释未能说明为何绘画的位置要隐蔽…,这等于说这一解释不能成立;接着在问题所对应的从句中补充说明上述解释成立所必须满足的条件:除非迁徙的庆祝是秘密进行的。这等于说这一解释缺乏这一条件。第三个选项符合此意,为正确答案。
  3. 一段中两个相距较远的例子说明该段主题句
  问题中涉及同一段中两个例子、而且它们不在一处时,通常它们说明该段主题句。例如,
  Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city in three fundamental ways. It catalyzed physical expansion, it sorted out people and land uses, and it accelerated the inherent instability of urban life. By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse railways, commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to four times more distant from city centers than they were in the pre-modern era. In 1850, for example, the borders of Boston lay scarcely two miles from the old business district; by the turn of the century the radius extended ten miles. Now those who could afford it could live far removed from the old city center and still commute there for work, shopping, and entertainment. The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl. Between 1890 and 1920, for example, some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying areas. Over the same period, another 550,000 were plotted outside the city limits but within the metropolitan area. Anxious to take advantage of the possibilities of commuting, real estate developers added 800,000 potential building sites to the Chicago region in just thirty years – lots that could have housed five to six million people.
  18. Why does the author mention both Boston and Chicago?
  (A) To demonstrate positive and negative effects of growth.
  (B) To show that mass transit changed many cities.
  (C) To exemplify cities with and without mass transportation.
  (D) To contrast their rates of growth
  问题中的关键词Boston与Chicago是两个例子,它们前面分别有提示词for example。由于两个例子位于同一段,而且不在一处,因此只能说明本段主题,也就是首句:Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city in three fundamental ways。选项(B)符合此意,为正确答案。
     以上就是环球托福老师对于考生在托福备考中做题的一些技巧,希望考生能够仔细分析,找出适合自己的学习技巧。顺利通过托福考试。