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托福阅读推理题解题妙招

2014-09-03 09:40| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 新托福阅读中,推理题是比较常见的一种,一般包括两个事物对比推理,时间对比推理和集合概念推理等题型,新托福阅读推理题有比较明显的标志,也有其独特的答题技巧,下面,上
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    新托福阅读中,推理题是比较常见的一种,一般包括两个事物对比推理,时间对比推理和集合概念推理等题型,新托福阅读推理题有比较明显的标志,也有其独特的答题技巧,下面,上海环球雅思小编为大家分享新托福阅读推理题解题妙招
  
    一、 推理题的标志
    推理题的题干中一般含有infer, imply, most likely, least likely, probably等词,分为有共性的推理题和无共性的推理题两大类。
  
    二、 推理题的做法
    对于无共性的推理题,也就是题干中无线索的,一般使用排除法,即根据各个选项的关键词回原文定位,通过排除法得出正确答案。
  
    对于有共性的推理题,也就是题干中有线索的,建议考生可以先圈定题干中的关键词,根据关键词回原文定位,然后进行推理。推理题主要有下列思路:
  
    1. 一般对比推理
    ETS设计推理题的手段不多,根据两个事物的对比特征出题是其中之一。问其中一个事物的特征时,只要将与之形成对比的另一个事物的特征否定掉就可以了。
    例如:
    It should be obvious that cetaceans, whales, porpoises, and dolphins are mammals. Theybreathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlinedbodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguisetheir affinities with land-dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters andpinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea),it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like.
Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about early sea otters?
    A. It is not difficult to imagine what they looked like.
    B. There were great numbers of them.
    C. They lived in the sea only.
    D. They did not leave many fossil remains.

    2. 时间对比推理
    这种思路常被考到。在这种推理中,一般有两个形成对比的时间段,它们所具有的特征一般相反。当题干问一个时间段的特征时,只要将与之相反的时间段的特征否定掉就可以了。
    例:
    Basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20 years after the Second World War is thecountry’s impressive population growth….
…It appeared that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smallerfamilies that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the IndustrialRevolution.
    It can be inferred from the passage that before the Industrial Revolution
    (A) families were larger.
    (B) population statistics were unreliable.
    (C) the population grew steadily.
    (D) economic conditions were bad.
 
    3.集合概念推理
    集合概念推理也可以称之为百分比推断,它指的是在一个集合中,包含两个相对的方面,共同构成一个大的集合。一方所占的比例减少意味着另一方所占比例的增加;反之,一方所占的比    例增加意味着另一方所占比例的减少。根据这一思路,可以由集合中一方的数量变化推断另一方的消减。
    例:
    A folk culture is small, isolated, cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group thatis homogeneous in custom and race, with a strong family or clan structure and highlydeveloped rituals. …Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as theUnited States and Canada….
By contrast, a popular culture is a large heterogeneous group, often highly individualisticand constantly changing.
What does the author imply about the United States and Canada?
    (A) They value folk cultures.
    (B) They have no social classes.
    (C) They have popular cultures.
    (D) They do not value individualism.
  
    以上就是托福阅读推理题的做法,大家可以根据题干标志圈定托福阅读推理题的范围,然后运用本文中的技巧,一举搞定推理题!