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如何应对托福阅读中修辞目的题

2014-07-15 10:48| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 托福阅读中修辞目的题(rhetorical purpose questions)是难度较大的题型之一。这种题型对于国内考生来说较为陌生,在考场上时间紧张的情况下考生往往不知该在文中什么地方找答案。环球托
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      托福阅读中修辞目的题(rhetorical purpose questions)是难度较大的题型之一。这种题型对于国内考生来说较为陌生,在考场上时间紧张的情况下考生往往不知该在文中什么地方找答案。环球托福老师将通过对这种题型出题原理的透彻分析,为大家揭秘托福阅读中修辞目的题的答案应从哪儿寻找。
  一.题目分类
  修辞目的题按提问对象分大致可分三类:一是问具体信息的目的、二是问段落目的、三是问段落组织结构。其中第一种出现的次数最多,其中又以举例目的题出现频率最高。因而以下重点介绍第一类的解法
  二.找答案--三步走
  举例目的题是修辞目的题中出现多、代表性强的一类,即:例子是为了证明论点的。而很多时候在具体信息,也就是例子之前还有一个具体的论点(statement),因此例子的目的也就有三个层次:
  1. 例子之前的具体的论点general statement
  2. 段落的中心句Topic Sentence,简称TS
  3. 文章的主旨
  当问到修辞的目的,尤其是具体信息的目的时,首先需要关注的就是具体信息之前的那句话,如果选项中没有则寻找其所在段落的中心句,,如果还没有则需要回顾一下全文的中心句,再比照选项,选择意义相同的选项。
  为了让大家进一步体会这个"三步走"战略,这里以Test Practice Online 中的一道题为例实践一下我们的解法:
  Paragraph 1 : The United States dancer Loie Fuller (1862-1928) found theatrical dance in the late nineteenth century artistically unfulfilling. She considered herself an artist rather than a mere entertainer, and she, in turn, attracted the notice of other artists。
  Paragraph 5 : As her technological expertise grew more sophisticated, so did the other aspects of her dances. Although she gave little thought to music in her earliest dances, she later used scores by Gluck, Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, and Wagner, eventually graduating to Stravinsky, Fauré, Debussy, and Mussorgsky, composers who were then considered progressive. She began to address more ambitious themes in her dances such as The Sea, in which her dancers invisibly agitated a huge expanse of silk, played upon by colored lights. Always open to scientific and technological innovations, she befriended the scientists Marie and Pierre Curie upon their discovery of radium and created a Radium Dance, which simulated the phosphorescence of that element. She both appeared in films-then in an early stage of development-and made them herself; the hero of her fairy-tale film Le Lys de la Vie (1919) was played by René Clair, later a leading French film director。
  9. Why does the author mention Fuller's The Sea?
  A.To point out a dance of Fuller's in which music did not play an important role
  B.To explain why Fuller sometimes used music by progressive composers
  C. To illustrate a particular way in which Fuller developed as an artist
  D. To illustrate how Fuller's interest in science was reflected in her work
      首先发现the sea 所在的段落中心句应该是第一句:As her technological expertise grew more sophisticated, so did the other aspects of her dances. 也就是说她除了舞蹈中的科技水平提高以外,其它方面也提高了。那这一段应该讲解具体哪几个方面有了提高。由此这一段又可以分成四个部分,也就是TS之后的四句话,每句话讲了她一个方面的提高。可以发现The Sea是出现在这一段除TS之外的第2句话中,而这句话前半部分给出了一个general statement, 即She began to address more ambitious themes in her dances。此时如果选项中有意思相同的就可以选出正确答案了,和可惜这道题的答案并不那么明显,所以我们继续走第二步,找段落TS。这一段的TS是这一段的第一句,即As her technological expertise grew more sophisticated, so did the other aspects of her dances. 发现题目中也没有明显与之对应的选项。那只剩下第三步,找文章的TS。这篇文章的TS比较明显,在第一段的后半部分(事实上第一段本身就很短,可以看做一个整体作为TS)。大家可以看出第一段是说Loie Fuller这个人不满足于19世纪晚期的戏剧性舞蹈,她认为自己是一位艺术家而不仅仅是位舞者。由此我们可以看出全文的中心应该是论证她为成为艺术家而努力,这和选项C的意思是吻合的。因而此题根据三步法,答案在第三个层面,及全文的TS, C 是正确选项。
      托福阅读中的修辞目的题考察了考生的角色转换能力。通过对出题原理和作者写作逻辑的分析我们可以总结出"三步走"的解法规律,以在考场上用最短的时间找到正确答案。相信有了这个框架,大家一定能明白考场上修辞目的题得答案应该往哪儿找,从而层层考察,找出答案。最后,环球托福预祝大家都能在新托福阅读中取得好成绩!