托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

托福阅读技巧了解段落内容的组织结构

2014-09-10 17:18| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 今天,环球托福郭晨婷老师通过借鉴官方指南书中的文章来带领同学们基本了解段落内部的组织结构以更好的掌握托福阅读技巧。
上海环球托福培训班
托福阅读文章从大框架来讲都是属于议论文范畴,但是具体落实到写作方式却并不是那么的单一。这样一种写作意图我们定义为衔接。衔接主要是段落内部及段落之间通过何种方式进行语义连接。今天,环球托福郭晨婷老师通过借鉴官方指南书中的文章来带领同学们基本了解段落内部的组织结构以更好的掌握托福阅读技巧。
 
1 分类式 classification      
例子
Many people have to communicate and work with members of other cultures, and social skills training is now being given to some of these who are about to work abroad. Intercultural communication is necessary for several kinds of people.
Tourists are probably the largest group, though they stay for the shortest periods and need to master only a few simple situations…
这个段落是典型的分类式写法,把需要进行跨文化交流的人分成几类,接下来分别描述,首当其冲的就是旅游者。
 
2 比较对比式 Comparison and Contrast
比较式
Elephants are the biggest land creatures on Earth, and among the smartest and most endearing. In their lives and social dynamics they resemble humans in many ways.
文章开头谈到resemble,表明之后的文章会把大象同人作比较。
 
对比式
Long lumped together by ordinary folks and scholars alike, envy and jealousy are not a single, formless “super emotion”. On the contrary, they are distinct, with different components, and are in fact elicited by completely different situations and in completely different settings. (P)
 
According to a Georgetown University psychologist… envy occurs when a person lacks another person’s superior quality, achievement, or possession, and desires it--- or wishes that the other person lacked it.
 
Jealousy, by contrast, occurs in the context of a close relationship when a person fears losing an important thing to a rival--- in particular, losing a relationship that is important to one’s sense of self.
这一小段文章的topic 是jealousy 和 envy 两词的区别。然后进行对比论证,同时辅以举例论证。举例十分的形象。以后我们就知道了,当我们和男朋友讨论恋爱史时,他如果满脸笑容的谈到说他的上一任是刘亦菲时,你的内心很有可能会同时经历两种情感。你嫉妒(envy)那个前女友,那么纯洁美丽;同时你更嫉妒(jealous)他的一脸笑容,那满足的神情,因为你觉得这可能会破坏你们的恋爱关系。
 
3 举例子(Example
托福阅读的文章科普性比较重,所以例子基本以科学研究为主。
 
4 因果论证(cause and effect)
Even in the areas that retain a soil cover, the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil’s ability to absorb substantial quantities of water.
The impact of raindrops on the loose soil tends to transfer fine clay particles into the tiniest soil spaces, sealing them and producing a surface that allows very little water penetration. Water absorption is greatly reduced; consequently runoff is increased, resulting in accelerated erosion rates. The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation, so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established.
 
这是一个非常漂亮的因果链论证观点的段落,值得背诵,它的逻辑关系如下。
P: 即使在有土壤覆盖的地方,植被减少也会导致土壤吸水能力下降。
为什么呢?
雨水打在松散的土壤上---移走密封小粘土颗粒(粘土可以大量吸水)---产生一个不能让水进入的表面---结果是流出的水变多---进一步导致土壤被水侵蚀;同时土地吸水能力不足---土地干旱---进一步导致植被减少---恶性循环。

总结
以上是掌握托福阅读技巧需要了解主要的一些段落组织方式。希望对广大考生有所帮助!