托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

基础托福阅读技巧-句子理解

2014-05-13 20:27| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 读懂托福阅读中的句子,关键看句子结构,区分主谓宾等主干成分,及各种修饰限定成分!下面上海环球托福的老师为大家讲解关于托福阅读技巧-句子理解的基本知识
上海环球托福春季班
托福阅读技巧的核心即为读懂句子,因为读懂文章是建立在读懂相应的句子基础上的,而读句子,关键看句子结构,区分主谓宾等主干成分,及各种修饰限定成分!下面上海环球托福的老师为大家讲解关于托福阅读技巧-句子理解的基本知识
 
(一)托福阅读五大基本句型
英语句子结构的形式千差万别,但英语作为主语突出型语言,主语和谓语是必需的句子成分主语的结构形式比较划一,通常是名词或相当于名词作用的其他词、词组或从句,而谓语的结构形式则较为多样化,这种多样化决定了英语句式结构的多样化,同时也决定了不同的分句类型,即基本句型,它们是千变万化的句式结构的雏形。正是有限的分句结构的雏形及其转换形式,能够衍生出无限的实际使用中的句子。五大基本句型分别是:
主语+系动词+表语
I am fine
主语+谓语动词+(状语)
I work in a hotel
主语+谓语动词+宾语
I love you
主语+谓语动词+间接宾语+直接宾语
I give you a book
主语+谓语动词+宾语+宾语补足语
I love you my little pig.
 
(二)托福阅读句式结构特点
英语的句子是树型结构,即树干(主句)是根本,然后在这个树干上生出若干枝叶,即利用各种关系词、介词、非谓语动词等把各种短语(名词短语、介词短语等)、附加成分(同位语、插入语等)、分句(独立成分、现在分词分句等)、从句(名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句)等构建在主句上,犹如一棵大树枝叶横生、盘根错节,十分复杂。现举例说明:
 
Whatever the enthusiasm of the English, who seemed to believe that the Prime Minister was making the long journey to do what Mr. Asquith and Sir Edward had failed to do in 1914—warn Germany that any aggression against a small power would bring not only France but Britain into war against it—Hitler realized, as the confidential German papers and subsequent events make clear, that Chamberlain’s action was a godsend to him.
                                                        William L. Shirer  The Rise and Fall the Third Reich
 
主句(树干):Hitler realized that Chamberlain’s action was a godsend to him.
第一层枝干:1. Whatever the enthusiasm of the English
                     2. as the confidential German papers and subsequent events make clear
第二层枝干:who seemed to believe
第三层枝干:that the Prime Minister was making the long journey to do
第四层枝干:what Mr. Asquith and Sir Edward had failed to do in 1914—warn Germany
第五层枝干:that any aggression against a small power would bring not only France but Britain into war against it
在这个句子中,主句充当树干的功能,是这个复杂句发展的基础,而whatever, as, who, that, what等连词或关系代词充当联结手段,将从句搭建在树干上,从而形成这个相当复杂的句子。考生在解答句子简化题时,也可以按照上例中提到的步骤来分析复杂句的结构。
 
(三)托福阅读句子类型
按句子结构分,英语句子可分为简单句、并列句、复合句和并列复合句。并列句指的是包含两个或更多的独立从句的句子,各从句的意义相关或可以比较,并具有类似的重要性,或有层次的展开。复合句包含一个主句和一个或更多的从句,并用连词表明之间的关系。并列复合句是并列句和复合句的综合,要至少包含两个主句和一个从句。例如:
Anasazi houses were originally built in pits and they were entered from the roof.(并列句)
Intelligent people know these things but tend to forget them when they do not hear them expressed. (复合句)
While the men worked to strengthen the dam, the rain continued to fall; and the river, which was already well above its normal level, rose higher and higher. (并列复合句)
       建议考生了解了句子结构类型后,重点复习关于从句的知识要点,例如:如何辨别和使用主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句等。其原因是这些从句都有可能在句子简化题考查的句子中出现,理解和掌握好附属从句是解答好该题型的基础。
 
 
那么,下面我们来看,一般对大家造成理解障碍的包括哪些类型的句子呢?
第一,   专业性词汇较多,生词难词较多的句子
第二,   修饰性成份较多的句子
第三,   被一些插入语,固定短语分隔的句子
第四,   含有一些指示性代词的句子
第五,   转折句,因果句
 
 
上述这些情况有时重合出现,这就为我们造成了理解上的更大难度。下面我来向大家一一介绍破解之道!
 
第一,专业性词汇较多,生词难词较多的句子
这种情况非常常见,我问过几乎所有刚接触托福的学生,你们认为托福起步最难的是什么,几乎所有人都会说,单词量,这几乎已经成为了所有英语学习者公认的老大难,问题,因此在这里,我必须强调背单词的重要性,这是基本功,单词才是硬道理。但是不可能把所有单词都背完,因此大家的第二选择就是,通过前面所讲的猜词法去化解这个生词问题。
 
第二,   修饰性成份较多的句子
这是我必须强调的,下面我们来看一个例子。
Currently, a heated debate is under way between advocates of retaining our drug laws and their opponents, who believe that criminalization has failed and encourage adoption of a policy of decriminalization combined with an intensified emphasis on education and therapy.
我们来看一下这个句子包括几层含义,该句包括如下意思:
Currently, a heated debate is under way.
       The debate is between advocates of retaining our drug laws and their opponents.
Opponents believe that criminalization has failed.
They encourage adoption of a policy of decriminalization.
They want this policy combined with an intensified emphasis on education and therapy.
五层关系组成的句子不把你看晕才怪呢。
如何破解,看主干,看主要(第一层)关系。
我们经常说,如何让车跑得快呢?除了进行必要的改装之外呢,轻量化是最重要的,车轻自然就快了,如何?把车里的除了主驾驶座和不影响汽车正常行驶的都扔出去。车手也要减重。对于英语来说,怎样减重呢?除了主干之外的先统统不要看。确定主要关系。
 
Currently, a heated debate is under way.
       The debate is between advocates of retaining our drug laws and their opponents.
Opponents believe that criminalization has failed.
They encourage adoption of a policy of decriminalization.
They want this policy combined with an intensified emphasis on education and therapy.
 
插入语
Reports about the production of atomic fission from uranium written by famed mathematician Albert Einstein—who regarded the development of atomic warfare as a perversion of his life's efforts—alerted the U.S. government to potential military uses.
 
很明显,我们还是排掉插入语,先看主干
 
Reports about the production of atomic fission from uranium written by famed mathematician Albert Einstein alerted the U.S. government to potential military uses.
 
主干Reports alerted. government
而插入语只是对Albert Einstein的介绍,无实在意义。
 
含有指示代词的句子。
代词用来代替前文或后文中提到的名词,会对理解句子产生障碍。例如:
Although the law is often slow to catch up with changing mores (customs), it usually does catch up with them in democratic societies because the legislators change the laws to suit the voters' new goals and desires.
要正确理解这句话,首先要弄清楚代词it和them分别指代哪两个名词。前者指代的是mores (customs)还是the law?后者指代的是mores (customs)还是the law?通过仔细阅读和分析,我们不难发现it指代the law,them指代customs。知道代词的指代含义后,可以得出该句的中心意思是:the law usually does catch up with changing customs。
 
 

托福阅读中的句间关系

一般来说,影响句子乃至全文理解的主要就是转折和因果关系,但是,都会存在相应的关系词来表明,我们在讲词汇的时候已经讲过,转折和因果的常见关系词都有哪些?我们在这里再强调一下:
转折
SIGNAL WORDS FOR CONTRAST
Although But Despite
even though However in contrast
in spite of Instead Nevertheless
Not on the contrary on the other hand
Rather Though Unlike
Whereas While Yet
 
 
因果
SIGNAL WORDS FOR CAUSE AND EFFECT
Accordingly As as a result
Because because of consequently
due to For for this reason
Hence in order to now that
owing to seeing that since
thanks to Therefore thus
 
 
我们来看例句,这也是官方样题中我们分析过的一个句子
These plants are termed opportunists because they rely on their seeds’ falling into settings where competing plants have been removed by natural processes, such as along an eroding riverbank, on landslips, or where a tree falls and creates a gap in the forest canopy.
这是一个综合了,多重修饰成份,句间关系这些难点的长难句。我们先来看这个句子的主语是the plants,谓语动词是are termed,宾语opportunists,另外一个是表示原因的从句,其中表示原因从句里面又有一个从句。处理这种题的时候,先不管这些句子在句子当中做什么样的成分,我们只要抓住第一层主从句成分就可以知道这句话的主要意思了。这句话主要讲的是这些植物被称为机会主义者,是因为他们都依赖于种子落入一定的自然环境当中。Because后面的两个where都是修饰说明是什么样一种settings,出现了such as, 举例说明了是什么样的一种环境。
 
托福阅读的文章为了掌握大意,应该如何读?我们需要在前五分钟之内,读完的就是题目,首段,点题段,每段第一句,最后一段或是最后一段的最后一句。由于托福阅读文章结构相对阶段,内容相对容易,因此,每段的第一句,一般能够较好的概括本段大意,即为本段中心句(有时中心句也会出现在段末)。如果把每段的中心句都掌握了,文章大意自然就清楚了。