2014-04-18 14:00| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 环球托福本次为大家搜集整理了的托福24阅读原文译文Moving into Pueblos,以帮助各位好好熟悉托福阅读作文

环球托福本次为大家搜集整理了的托福资料24阅读原文译文Moving into Pueblos,以帮助各位好好熟悉托福阅读资料作文,环球托福预祝各位考试顺利!

Moving into Pueblos




托福资料24阅读原文Moving into Pueblos
In the Mesa Verde area of the ancient North American Southwest, living patterns changed in the thirteenth century, with large numbers of people moving into large communal dwellings called pueblos, often constructed at the edges of canyons, especially on the sides of cliffs. Abandoning small extended-family households to move into these large pueblos with dozens if not hundreds of other people was probably traumatic. Few of the cultural traditions and rules that today allow us to deal with dense populations existed for these people accustomed to household autonomy and the ability to move around the landscape almost at will. And besides the awkwardness of having to share walls with neighbors, living in aggregated pueblos introduced other problems. For people in cliff dwellings, hauling water, wood, and food to their homes was a major chore. The stress on local resources, especially in the firewood needed for daily cooking and warmth, was particularly intense, and conditions in aggregated pueblos were not very hygienic.
托福资料24阅读译文Moving into Pueblos


托福资料24阅读原文Moving into Pueblos
Given all the disadvantages of living in aggregated towns, why did people in the thirteenth century move into these closely packed quarters? For transitions of such suddenness, archaeologists consider either pull factors (benefits that drew families together) or push factors (some external threat or crisis that forced people to aggregate). In this case, push explanations dominate.
托福资料24阅读译文Moving into Pueblos


托福资料24阅读原文Moving into Pueblos
Population growth is considered a particularly influential push. After several generations of population growth, people packed the landscape in densities so high that communal pueblos may have been a necessary outcome. Around Sand Canyon, for example, populations grew from 5 -12 people per square kilometer in the tenth century to as many as 30 - 50 by the 1200s. As densities increased, domestic architecture became larger, culminating in crowded pueblos. Some scholars expand on this idea by emphasizing a corresponding need for arable land to feed growing numbers of people: construction of small dams, reservoirs, terraces, and field houses indicates that farmers were intensifying their efforts during the 1200s. Competition for good farmland may also have prompted people to bond together to assert rights over the best fields.
托福资料24阅读译文Moving into Pueblos


托福资料24阅读原文Moving into Pueblos
Another important push was the onset of the Little Ice Age, a climatic phenomenon that led to cooler temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the height of the Little Ice Age was still around the corner, some evidence suggests that temperatures were falling during the thirteenth century. The environmental changes associated with this transition are not fully understood, but people living closest to the San Juan Mountains, to the northeast of Mesa Verde, were affected first. Growing food at these elevations is always difficult because of the short growing season. As the Little Ice Age progressed, farmers probably moved their fields to lower elevations, infringing on the lands of other farmers and pushing people together, thus contributing to the aggregations. Archaeologists identify a corresponding shift in populations toward the south and west toward Mesa Verde and away from higher elevations.
托福资料24阅读译文Moving into Pueblos
另外一个推动力量是小冰河时代的到来,这种气候现象导致了北半球气温的降低。尽管小冰河时代即将来临,一些证据表明十三世纪这一地区的温度将会降低。这种变迁对环境变化的影响并未受到充分认识,但是住在San Juan山脉和普韦布洛地区的人们首先受到了影响。丰收季节的缩短使得食物的增长变得困难。随着小冰河时代的到来,农民们可能将他们的耕地迁到更低的海拔地区去,侵犯其他农民的土地并使人口聚集在一起,这也造成了人口的集聚。考古学家确认了普韦布洛地区从南向西从海拔高处逃离造成的人口变化。


托福资料24阅读原文Moving into Pueblos
In the face of all these pushes, people in the Mesa Verde area had yet another reason to move into communal villages: the need for greater cooperation. Sharing and cooperation were almost certainly part of early Puebloan life, even for people living in largely independent single-household residences scattered across the landscape. Archaeologists find that even the most isolated residences during the eleventh and twelfth centuries obtained some pottery, and probably food, from some distance away, while major ceremonial events were opportunities for sharing food and crafts. Scholars believe that this cooperation allowed people to contend with a patchy environment in which precipitation and other resources varied across the landscape: if you produce a lot of food one year, you might trade it for pottery made by a distant ally who is having difficulty with crops—and the next year, the flow of goods might go in the opposite direction. But all of this appears to have changed   thirteenth   century.   Although   the   climate   remained   as   unpredictable   as   ever   between   one   year   and   the   next,   it became much less locally diverse. In a bad year for farming, everyone was equally affected. No longer was it helpful to share widely. Instead, the most sensible thing would be for neighbors to combine efforts to produce as much food as possible, and thus aggregated towns were a sensible arrangement.
托福资料24阅读译文Moving into Pueblos
在所有这些推动力面前,普韦布洛地区的人们还有另外一个搬进公共村庄的理由:对更多合作的需求。分享和合作是早期普韦布洛人生活的一部分,即使是那些分散在这一地区立性比较强的家庭也是这样。考古学家发现当有一些主要的分享食物和物品的集会时,即使是立的居民在十一世纪和十二世纪的时候也能从很远的地方获得陶器,还可能有食物。学者们相信 这种合作让人们在这种拼凑的但不断变化的环境中能相互竞争:如果你今年生产了很多东西,你就能从很远的联盟交易到陶器,这些有陶器的人可能没有那么多食物—下一年食物的流动方向可能会相反。但是十三世纪这些都发生了变化。尽管每年的气候都无法预测,但是在局部不会有太大变化。在收成差的年份里,每个人都会受影响。如果能广泛分享的话就能帮助减小这种影响。取而代之的是,明智的是一个地区的人们一起努力造多的食物,这样人口聚集的城市就是一个合理的选择。
以上即是本次环球托福为大家搜集整理的托福资料24阅读原文译文Moving into Pueblos。更多精彩的托福资料阅读相关文章,尽在环球托福!