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托福TPO24阅读真题及答案MovingIntoPueblos

2014-04-10 17:28| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 今天,环球托福为大家带来了托福TPO24阅读真题及答案Moving into Pueblos,供大家练习
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以下,是这次环球托福为正在进行托福备考的考友们整理了托福TPO24阅读真题及答案 Lake Moving into Pueblos 。我们建议考友们,先做真题,后看答案进行验证自己的正确率。之后,环球托福还会进一步推出TPO24阅读解析Moving Into Pueblos,做完真题后,更便于提高托福阅读能力。

托福TPO24阅读真题Moving into Pueblos

Moving into Pueblos

In the Mesa Verde area of the ancient North American Southwest, living patterns changed in the thirteenth century, with large numbers of people moving into large communal dwellings called pueblos, often constructed at the edges of canyons, especially on the sides of cliffs. Abandoning small extended-family households to move into these large pueblos with dozens if not hundreds of other people was probably traumatic. Few of the cultural traditions and rules that today allow us to deal with dense populations existed for these people accustomed to household autonomy and the ability to move around the landscape almost at will. And besides the awkwardness of having to share walls with neighbors, living in aggregated pueblos introduced other problems. For people in cliff dwellings, hauling water, wood, and food to their homes was a major chore. The stress on local resources, especially in the firewood needed for daily cooking and warmth, was particularly intense, and conditions in aggregated pueblos were not very hygienic.
Given all the disadvantages of living in aggregated towns, why did people in the thirteenth century move into these closely packed quarters? For transitions of such suddenness, archaeologists consider either pull factors (benefits that drew families together) or push factors (some external threat or crisis that forced people to aggregate). In this case, push explanations dominate.
Population growth is considered a particularly influential push. After several generations of population growth, people packed the landscape in densities so high that communal pueblos may have been a necessary outcome. Around Sand Canyon, for example, populations grew from 5 -12 people per square kilometer in the tenth century to as many as 30 - 50 by the 1200s. As densities increased, domestic architecture became larger, culminating in crowded pueblos. Some scholars expand on this idea by emphasizing a corresponding need for arable land to feed growing numbers of people: construction of small dams, reservoirs, terraces, and field houses indicates that farmers were intensifying their efforts during the 1200s. Competition for good farmland may also have prompted people to bond together to assert rights over the best fields.
Another important push was the onset of the Little Ice Age, a climatic phenomenon that led to cooler temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the height of the Little Ice Age was still around the corner, some evidence suggests that temperatures were falling during the thirteenth century. The environmental changes associated with this transition are not fully understood, but people living closest to the San Juan Mountains, to the northeast of Mesa Verde, were affected first. Growing food at these elevations is always difficult because of the short growing season. As the Little Ice Age progressed, farmers probably moved their fields to lower elevations, infringing on the lands of other farmers and pushing people together, thus contributing to the aggregations. Archaeologists identify a corresponding shift in populations toward the south and west toward Mesa Verde and away from higher elevations.
In the face of all these pushes, people in the Mesa Verde area had yet another reason to move into communal villages: the need for greater cooperation. Sharing and cooperation were almost certainly part of early Puebloan life, even for people living in largely independent single-household residences scattered across the landscape. Archaeologists find that even the most isolated residences during the eleventh and twelfth centuries obtained some pottery, and probably food, from some distance away, while major ceremonial events were opportunities for sharing food and crafts. Scholars believe that this cooperation allowed people to contend with a patchy environment in which precipitation and other resources varied across the landscape: if you produce a lot of food one year, you might trade it for pottery made by a distant ally who is having difficulty with crops—and the next year, the flow of goods might go in the opposite direction. But all of this appears to have changed   thirteenth   century.   Although   the   climate   remained   as   unpredictable   as   ever   between   one   year   and   the   next,   it became much less locally diverse. In a bad year for farming, everyone was equally affected. No longer was it helpful to share widely. Instead, the most sensible thing would be for neighbors to combine efforts to produce as much food as possible, and thus aggregated towns were a sensible arrangement.
 
托福TPO24阅读真题Moving into Pueblo题目
 
1. The word traumatic meaning to
A. Essential
B. highly stressful
C. highly unusual
D. unwise
 
2. The word intense in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. strong
B. questionable
C. obvious
D. deliberate
 
3.According to paragraph 1, before the thirteenth century the people of   southwestern North America live in households that
A. sharing daily chores with neighboring households
B. occupied dwellings that were built into the sides of cliffs
C. were largely free to conduct their lives as they pleased
D.enforced common standards of behavior and cooperative conduct within their communities
 
4. Which of the following best indicates the organization of paragraph 1?
A. It presents the conditions that caused a change in a population’s living patterns and then explains why those conditions got worse.
B. It identifies certain present-day cultural traditions and rules and then traces them to their roots in the thirteenth century.
C. It casts doubt on one explanation of the move to pueblos and then introduces an alternative explanation that the passage will defend.
D. It describes a major change in a population’s living patterns and then presents a number of problems that resulted from that change.
 
5. According to paragraph 3, which of the following was one of the consequences of increasing population densities?
A. People were increasingly crowded into collections of large housing units.
B. People stopped planting crops that have relatively low yields.
C. Domestic buildings were pushed beyond the canyon limits.
D. The natural landscape was destroyed.
 
6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Some scholars even claim that the intensification of farmers' various efforts during the 1200s led to further population growth and the consequent need for more arable land.
B. Evidence of intensifying agriculture in the 1200s indicates a need to feed a larger population and so extends the argument that a growing population was the cause of the move to pueblos.
C. During the 1200s, farmers met the demand for more arable land, but they also succeeded in cultivating existing land more intensively with the help of agricultural construction projects.
D. Some scholars feel strongly that the construction of small dams, reservoirs, terraces, and field houses in the thirteenth century is independent evidence for growth in the number of people.
 
7. The word transition in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. change
B. climate
C. decline
D. problem
 
8. Why does the author state that "Growing food at these elevations is always difficult because of the short growing season"?
A. To explain why the higher elevations were always relatively sparsely populated
B. To suggest that any worsening of conditions would have significant consequences
C. To emphasize how resourceful the people growing food at these elevations were
D. To argue that farming was not the primary source of food at high elevations
 
9. According to paragraph 4, what did farmers do in response to falling temperatures during the Little Ice Age?
A. Moved to areas away from Mesa Verde
B. Moved closer to the northeastern part of Mesa Verde
C. Began to cultivate crops adapted to a short growing season
D. Gave up the cultivation of the highest-lying lands
 
10. According to paragraph 5, major ceremonial events were occasions for
A. leaders to persuade people from the countryside to move into a pueblo
B. farmers to collect information about where crops could be reliably grown
C. people to develop better techniques for producing pottery and crafts
D. people in the early Puebloan era to share farm and craft products
 
11. According to paragraph 5, which of the following was a reason people in the Mesa Verde area formed communal villages in the thirteenth century?
A. The climate in the Mesa Verde area became more locally diverse.
B. Individuals were no longer interested in exchanging pottery and food.
C. Cooperation between people became more important for survival.
D. Bad years of farming began to occur more frequently.
 
12. Paragraph 5 supports which of the following statements about cooperation among the people in the Mesa Verde area from the eleventh through the thirteenth century?
A. Cooperation allowed many households to give up farming and to specialize in making pottery and crafts.
B. People went from exchanging food and crafts they individually produced to sharing in a cooperative effort to produce as much food as possible.
C. Overtime there was less cooperation as farmers competed with each other for trade with distant areas.
D. Individuals stopped cooperating with each other because they did not have enough food for themselves.
        
Paragraphy1: In the Mesa Verde area of the ancient North American Southwest, living patterns changed in the thirteenth century, with large numbers of people moving into large communal dwellings called pueblos, often constructed at the edges of canyons, especially on the sides of cliffs. Abandoning small extended-family households to move into these large pueblos with dozens if not hundreds of other people was probably traumatic. Few of the cultural traditions and rules that today allow us to deal with dense populations existed for these people accustomed to household autonomy and the ability to move around the landscape almost at will. [■] And besides the awkwardness of having to share walls with neighbors, living in aggregated pueblos introduced other problems. [■] For people in cliff dwellings, hauling water, wood, and food to their homes was a major chore. [■] The stress on local resources, especially in the firewood needed for daily cooking and warmth, was particularly intense, and conditions in aggregated pueblos were not very hygienic. [■]
 
13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Performing everyday household tasks required more effort.
Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.
 
14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.
This question is worth 2 points.
 
In the thirteenth century, the people in the Mesa Verde area went from living in scattered independent households to living in large pueblos.
 
Answer Choices
A. Because the thirteenth-century inhabitants of the Mesa Verde area did not have the cultural expectations of today's city dwellers, they easily adapted to communal life.
B. Even though living in pueblos had disadvantages, the population of the area had grown so large that there may have been no other arrangement that would have met its needs.
C. From the eleventh century onward, farmers began to increase food production on existing farmland and started bringing more land under cultivation.
D. A development that contributed to increasing population densities was a cooling climate that led many people to leave the coldest areas and crowd into climatically more favorable areas.
E. The primary reason for moving to pueblos was the social benefits associated with communal life.
F. People were brought together by the need to produce food cooperatively, as the use of food surpluses in one place to relieve shortages in another ended due to a change in climate.
 
托福TPO24阅读真题答案:
 
1.  B  2.A  3.C  4.D  5.A  6.B  7.A  8.B  9.D  10.D  11.C  12.B  13.B 
14. A development that...
.  The primary reason...
People were brought...
 
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