托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

托福阅读练习材料National parks of the united state2

2014-03-18 16:40| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 上文中对于托福阅读练习材料:National parks of the united states(1)阅读得怎么样了呢,接下来,请和环球托福一起继续来看托福阅读练习材料吧。
上海环球托福培训班

 
上文中对于托福阅读练习材料:National parks of the united states(1)阅读得怎么样了呢,接下来,请和环球托福一起来看看关于托福阅读练习材料:National parks of the united states的下文介绍吧。
 
The National Park System (NPS) includes all properties managed by the National Park Service (also, confusingly, "NPS"). The System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, and some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels".
 
In addition to "units", and other properties that the National Park Service either owns or administers, it also provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress. The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres (4711 km²). The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than one hundredth of an acre.
 
Although all units of the National Park System in the United States are the responsibility of a single agency, they are all managed under individual pieces of authorizing legislation or, in the case of national monuments created under the Antiquities Act, presidential proclamation. For example, because of provisons within their enabling legislation, Congaree National Park is almost entirely wilderness area, yet Yosemite allows unique developments such as the Badger Pass Ski Area and the O'Shaughnessy Dam within its boundaries. Death Valley National Park has an active mine legislated within its boundaries. Such irregularities would not be found in other parks unless specifically provided for by the legislation that creates it.
 
Many parks charge an entrance fee ranging from US$3 to $25 per week. Visitors can buy a federal interagency annual pass, known as the America the Beautiful – National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass, allowing unlimited entry to federal fee areas (USDA Forest Service, National Park Service, US Fish & Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation) for $80 per year. This pass applies to entry fees, only. Other applicable fees such as camping, backcountry access, etc. still apply. Those U.S. citizens who are 62+ years old may purchase a version with the same privileges, for $10, and citizens with permanent disabilities may receive a free version.
 
National Parks include a range of superb natural and cultural wonders. The first National Park was Yellowstone National Park in 1872.
 
National Monuments preserve a single unique cultural or natural feature. Devils Tower National Monument was the first in 1906.
 
National Historic Sites protect a significant cultural resource that is not a complicated site. Examples of these types of parks include: Ford's Theatre National Historic Site and William Howard Taft National Historic Site.
 
National Historical Parks are larger areas with a more complex subject. Appomattox Court House National Historical Park was created in 1940. George Rogers Clark National Historical Park was dedicated in 1936. Historic sites may also be protected in National Parks, Monuments, Seashores and Lakeshores.
 
National Military Parks, Battlefield Park, Battlefield site and Battlefield preserve areas associated with military history. The different designations reflect the complexity of the event and the site. Many of the sites preserve important Revolutionary War battles and Civil War Battlefields. 'Military Parks' are larger actions such as Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, Vicksburg National Military Park, Gettysburg National Military Park and Shiloh National Military Park, the original four from 1890. Examples of ‘Battlefield Parks’, ‘Battlefield Sites’, and ‘National Battlefields’ include: Richmond National Battlefield Park, Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site and Antietam National Battlefield.
 
National Seashores and National Lakeshores offer both preservation of the national coast line, while supporting water based recreation. Cape Hatteras National Seashore was created in 1937. Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore were the first to be created in 1966.
 
National Recreation Areas in the park system, originally, were units (such as Lake Mead National Recreation Area) surrounding reservoirs impounded by dams built by other federal agencies. Many of these areas are managed under cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. The concept has grown to include other lands and waters set aside by acts of Congress for recreational use and now includes major areas in urban centers as an outgrowth of the recommendations of a Presidential commission, the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC). This resulted, in part, with Gateway National Recreation Area and Golden Gate National Recreation Area, encompassing significant cultural as well as natural resources. There are also national recreation areas that are administered by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, outside the National Park System.
 
National Rivers and Wild and Scenic Riverways protect free-flowing streams over their length. The riverways may not be altered with dams, channelization or other changes. Recreational pursuits are encouraged along the waterways. Ozark National Scenic Riverways was established in 1964. Many of these units are not part of the National Park System. The U.S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and other government agencies manage wild and scenic rivers.
 
The National Trails System preserves long distance routes across America. The system was created in 1968 and consists of two major components. National Scenic Trails are long-distance trails through some of the most scenic parts of the country. Scenic trails received official protection in 1968. The Appalachian Trail and the Continental Divide Trail are the best known of these trails. National Historic Trails commemorate the routes of major historic events. Some of the best known trails include: the Trail of Tears; Mormon Trail and the Santa Fe Trail.
 
National Preserves are for the protection of certain resources. Activities like hunting, fishing and some mining are allowed. Big Cypress National Preserve and Big Thicket National Preserve were created in 1974 as the first National Preserves.
 
National Reserves are similar to National Preserves, but the operational authority can be placed with a local government. City of Rocks National Reserve was the first to be established in 1988.
 
以上就是环球托福为大家介绍的托福阅读练习材料:National parks of the united states全部内容。希望大家喜欢,托福阅读水平也有所提升。最后,环球托福祝考生们托福考试顺利!
 
 
托福阅读练习材料