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托福阅读段落之间怎么连接的?(二)

2014-03-12 19:30| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 托福阅读段落之间怎么连接的?衔接主要是段落内部及段落之间通过何种方式进行语义连接。环球托福今天通过借鉴官方指南书中的文章来基本了解段落内部的组织结构。
上海环球托福培训班
近几年的托福阅读文章难度逐步增大,这种难度主要体现在四方面:词汇,句式,衔接和篇章。在同学们攻克了词汇和语法关后,就要学会从宏观上来把控文章,所以今天环球托福就衔接方面的内容和大家进行探讨。
 
衔接主要是段落内部及段落之间通过何种方式进行语义连接。环球托福今天通过借鉴官方指南书中的文章来基本了解段落内部的组织结构。
 
托福阅读段落组织结构3 举例子(Example
 
托福阅读的文章科普性比较重,所以例子基本以科学研究为主。
 
托福阅读官方指南
 
例子一
 
Cognitive psychologists assert that our behavior is influenced by our values by the ways in which we interpret our situations, and by choice. For example, people who believe that aggression is necessary and justified are likely to act aggressively whereas…
这个例子举了两组人来论证我们的价值观会影响我们的行为(攻击性)。大家可以借鉴学术文章举例子的方式,很少用my neighbor Jack 这样具体的例子,一般都是泛泛的谈,相对具有说服力。
 
例子二
 
Theorists hold that inner conflicts are crucial for understanding human behavior, including aggression. Sigmund Freud, for example, believed that aggressive impulses are inevitable reactions to the frustrations of daily life…
 
这一段用的是弗洛伊德的例子,本质上是科学研究。结合例一例二,大家以后写学术文章例子的思路就有了,少举太过个人的例子,可以侧重整体概念和名人例子。
 
例子三
 
Sociobiology views mush social behavior, including aggressive behavior, as genetically determined. Consider Darwin’s theory of evolution. Darwin held that…
这一段要表明攻击行为性是基因决定的,之后引入达尔文进化论,本质上还是科学研究。
 
模拟试题
 
1 Several studies how that getting fewer than six hours of sleep a night can impair short-term memory, coordination, reaction time, and judgment. In one study of drivers, researchers reported that sleep deprivation has some of the same hazardous effects as being drunk…
 
这一段是要来说明缺乏睡眠对人体可能会产生的影响,然后通过引入以驾驶员作为主体的例子来论证。
 
2 However, no measure of early family environment or early-adult competence remained a significant predictor of psychological well being at the end of middle age. One study of men revealed that at the age of 65, there were no childhood or early-adulthood characteristics that distinguished between men who had turned out well and those who had not. However, what did predict success and well being at the age of 65 was the man’s health and adjustment at midlife.
 
这篇文章讲生活幸福感。这一段的观点是家庭因素对于中年男人而言就不是那么重要了。什么才重要?文中指出是你中年时的抉择决定你之后生活是否幸福的。
 
这一观点可以马上运用到SAT的写作中,Is identity something you are born with or something you create for yourself? 或者是雅思作文中对于nature(先天因素) 和nurture(后天培育) 哪个更重要的问题的讨论
 
信号词总结:for example, for instance, to illustrate, specifically, such as
 
实验论证是学术文章(比如雅思考试)中间段落论证的杀手锏,这里给大家提供一个简单的对比试验,供大家参考来论证你的观点。
 
An experiment carried out by Japanese Central Educational Agency explores students’ performances in relation to teachers’ encouragement, and revealed that students who get praise, even overrated, perform better than those who don’t get praises. A number of fifty students are divided into two groups. In one group, the teacher uses conservative method to teach, students get only conservative praise if they performed good, and will be criticized if they made mistakes.
 
In another group, the students are highly praised if well performed, and will still get encouragement if they made mistakes. They overall performance was tested through a standardized examination at the end of two months. The group of students who get praise scored 15 percent higher than the other group. Such an experiment further proved that encouragement, even overrated, will have a positive effect on people.
 
托福阅读段落组织结构4 因果论证(cause and effect)
 
例子一
 
Even in the areas that retain a soil cover, the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil’s ability to absorb substantial quantities of water.
The impact of raindrops on the loose soil tends to transfer fine clay particles into the tiniest soil spaces, sealing them and producing a surface that allows very little water penetration. Water absorption is greatly reduced; consequently runoff is increased, resulting in accelerated erosion rates. The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation, so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established.
 
这是一个非常漂亮的因果链论证观点的段落,值得背诵,它的逻辑关系如下。
P: 即使在有土壤覆盖的地方,植被减少也会导致土壤吸水能力下降。
为什么呢?
雨水打在松散的土壤上---移走密封小粘土颗粒(粘土可以大量吸水)---产生一个不能让水进入的表面---结果是流出的水变多---进一步导致土壤被水侵蚀;同时土地吸水能力不足---土地干旱---进一步导致植被减少---恶性循环。
 
例子二
 
In some regions, the increase in desert areas is occurring largely as the result of a trend toward drier climatic conditions.
Continued gradual global warming has produced an increase in aridity for some areas over the past few thousand years. The process may be accelerated in subsequent decades if global warming resulting from air pollution seriously increases.
这一段还是介绍沙漠化的原因,这里讲的原因是天气干旱。
如何论证。
空气污染导致---全球变暖---produce (隐形结果词) aridity (dryness)---沙漠区域增加
 
其他信号词总结:
表原因的词
Because, for this reason, since, cause, on account of, why, due to
表结果的词语
As a result, in effect, therefore, consequently, results in, thus, hence, the outcome is
托福阅读段落组织结构总结
以上是环球托福对于托福阅读文章主要的一些段落组织方式。把握好这个基本框架,可以帮助各位更快的确定这一段的主要内容,更为重要的是把握以后自己写作的段落论证方式。环球托福预祝大家托福考试顺利!