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托福阅读段落之间怎么连接的?(一)

2014-03-12 19:29| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 托福阅读段落之间怎么连接的?衔接主要是段落内部及段落之间通过何种方式进行语义连接。环球托福今天通过借鉴官方指南书中的文章来基本了解段落内部的组织结构。
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近几年的托福阅读文章难度逐步增大,这种难度主要体现在四方面:词汇,句式,衔接和篇章。在同学们攻克了词汇和语法关后,就要学会从宏观上来把控文章,所以今天环球托福就衔接方面的内容和大家进行探讨。
 
衔接主要是段落内部及段落之间通过何种方式进行语义连接。环球托福今天通过借鉴官方指南书中的文章来基本了解段落内部的组织结构。
 
托福阅读段落组织结构1 分类式 classification
 
例子
 
Many people have to communicate and work with members of other cultures, and social skills training is now being given to some of these who are about to work abroad. Intercultural communication is necessary for several kinds of people.
 
Tourists are probably the largest group, though they stay for the shortest periods and need to master only a few simple situations…
 
这个段落是典型的分类式写法,把需要进行跨文化交流的人分成几类,接下来分别描述,首当其冲的就是旅游者。
 
托福阅读官方指南
 
1)    Desertification is accomplished primary through the loss of stabilizing natural vegetation and the subsequent accelerated erosion of soil by wind and water. (P)
In some cases the loose soil is blown completely away, leaving a stony surface. In other cases, the finer particles may be removed, while the sand-sized particles are accumulated to form mobile hills or ridge of sand. (I)
 
这段内容是一个典型的总分结构,即point + illustration。观点很明显是说沙漠化的原因是植被消失,土壤侵蚀。接下来的论证时进一步补充说明植被消失之后,土壤可能会碰到的状况,分成了两种情况。一种情况松散的土壤完全被吹走,还有一种情况小颗粒被带走,沙子大小的颗粒聚集成沙山,进而逐步累积形成沙漠化。
 
2)    Expanding populations are subjecting the land to increasing pressure to provide them with land and fuel. (P)
In wet periods, the land may be able to respond to these stresses. During the dry periods that are common phenomenon along the desert margins, the pressure on the land is often far in excess of its diminished capacity to, and desertification results. (I )
 
这个段落同样讲沙漠化的原因,内部也是总分结构,说的是人变多,土地的压力增大这个原因。然后分情况强化论点,天气湿润还行;天气干燥,土地就没法处理这种人口压力,会导致沙漠化。
 
3)    Four specific activities have been identified as major contributors to the desertification processes: over cultivation, overgrazing, firewood gathering and over irrigation.
 
文章之后则是分别阐述每一个活动为什么造成沙漠化。
 
其他信号词总结:
Categories; classification; groups; parts; types; characteristics; elements; kinds; sorts; ways; classes
托福阅读段落组织结构2 比较对比式 Comparison and Contrast比较式
 
Elephants are the biggest land creatures on Earth, and among the smartest and most endearing. In their lives and social dynamics they resemble humans in many ways.
 
文章开头谈到resemble,表明之后的文章会把大象同人作比较。
 
其他信号词总结:
compare, like/alike, resembles, in comparison, likewise, similar, in the same way/manner, parallels, similarly
 
托福阅读官方指南
 
These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors… The Kinetoscope parlor functioned in a similar way.
很明显这里是比较式写法,爱迪生同志所发明的K机器(用于早期的peepshow当中的机器)的建造模型是留声机。
 
对比式
 
Long lumped together by ordinary folks and scholars alike, envy and jealousy are not a single, formless “super emotion”. On the contrary, they are distinct, with different components, and are in fact elicited by completely different situations and in completely different settings. (P)
 
According to a Georgetown University psychologist… envy occurs when a person lacks another person’s superior quality, achievement, or possession, and desires it--- or wishes that the other person lacked it.
 
Jealousy, by contrast, occurs in the context of a close relationship when a person fears losing an important thing to a rival--- in particular, losing a relationship that is important to one’s sense of self.
 
Jealousy, by contrast, occurs in the context of a close relationship when a person fears losing an important thing to a rival--- in particular, losing a relationship that is important to one’s sense of self.
 
这一小段文章的topic 是jealousy 和 envy 两词的区别。然后进行对比论证,同时辅以举例论证。举例十分的形象。以后我们就知道了,当我们和男朋友讨论恋爱史时,他如果满脸笑容的谈到说他的上一任是刘亦菲时,你的内心很有可能会同时经历两种情感。你嫉妒(envy)那个前女友,那么纯洁美丽;同时你更嫉妒(jealous)他的一脸笑容,那满足的神情,因为你觉得这可能会破坏你们的恋爱关系。
 
其他信号词总结:
 
Although, however, on the other hand, as opposed to, in contrast to, rather than, but, instead, unlike, conversely, nevertheless, whereas, difference, on the contrary, yet, different
 
托福阅读官方指南
 
1 With the advent of projection in 1895-1896, motion pictures became the ultimate form of consumption. Previously, large audience had viewed spectacles at the theatre. But the movie differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which depended on either live performance or in the case of slide-and-lantern shows the active involvement of a master ceremonies who assembled to final program.
 
本文是在讲投影技术出现之后,电影成了消费形式。之后的论证部分通过对比指出电影的本质是不需要现场演出或者是大师的积极参与。
 
2 But research findings on the usefulness of catharsis are mixed. Some studies suggest that catharsis leads to reduction in tension and a lowered likelihood of future aggression. Other studies, however, suggest that letting some steam actually encourages more aggression later on.
 
探讨的是catharsis (泻药)的用途,当然实际是指发泄(vent aggression)的效用。这一小段内部大方向上说是分类结构,不过这个分类的实质是正反对比的两种理论:一些认为发泄会减少紧张,另一些认为会进一步鼓励攻击性行为。
 
3 Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans… After 1815 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers.
 
这一小段是以1815作为分界线,来吧生产形式作一个对比,之前是手工,之后是机器。
 
以上是环球托福对于托福阅读文章主要的一些段落组织方式。关于这个话题,未完待续,敬请期待托福阅读段落之间怎么连接的?(二)