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托福TPO31写作范文

2014-10-21 14:29| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 上海环球托福带来托福TPO31写作范文,考生们可以作为参考。
上海环球托福春季班
  下面是托福TPO31写作范文,更多托福TPO信息尽在托福TPO频道。
Reading Passage
A fossil skeleton of a dinosaur called Sinosauropteryx, preserved in volcanic ash, was discovered
in Liaoning, China, in 1996. Interestingly, the fossil included a pattern of fine lines surrounding the
skeletal bones. Some paleontologists interpret the lines as evidence that Sinosauropteryx had
feathers. However, critics have opposed the idea that Sinosauropteryx was a feathered dinosaur,
citing several reasons.
1996 年一只名为Sinosauropteryx(中华龙鸟)的掩埋在火山灰内的恐龙的化石骨架于中国辽
宁被发现。很有趣的是,这个化石中的恐龙骨架周围有一层细纹图案。一些古生物学家把这
些细纹作为中华龙鸟带有翅膀的证据。但是,批评者通过列举以下原因来反对中华龙鸟是带
翼恐龙这样一个观点。
First, the critics points out that the fine lines may not even represent functional structures of a
living dinosaur, but rather structures that were formed after the animal’s death. After the animal
died and was buried in volcanic ash, its skin may have decomposed into fibers. The skin fibers
then became preserved as lines in the fossil; the lines were misinterpreted as evidence of
feathers.
首先,批评者指出这些细纹甚至不一定表明了一个活着的恐龙的功能结构,而只是恐龙死后
所形成的结构。当龙鸟死后,它被掩埋在火山岩中,它的皮肤会腐烂并分解为纤维。这种皮
肤纤维之后会以条纹的形式被保留在化石中。所以这些条纹可能被误认为是羽毛的标志。
Second, even if the fine lines are remains of real structures of a Sinosauropteryx, scientists
cannot tell with certainty what part of the dinosaur’s anatomy the structures were. Many
dinosaurs had frills, ornamental fan-shaped structures growing out of some parts of their bodies.
Some of the critics argue that the lines surrounding the skeleton are much more likely to be
fossilized remains of frills than remains of feathers.
再者,即使这些细纹是中华龙鸟的真实结构的痕迹,科学家并不能明确说明这些条纹究竟是
龙鸟的身体结构中的哪一块儿。很多恐龙有那种从身体的一些部位生长出来的带有褶边的装
饰性的扇形结构。所以一些批评者认为龙鸟骨架周围的条纹更有可能是褶边的化石遗迹而不
是羽毛的痕迹。
A third objection is based on the fact that the usual functions of feathers are to help animals fly
or regulate their internal temperature. However, the structures represented by the lines in the
Sinosauropteryx fossil were mostly located along the backbone and the tail of the animal. This
would have made the structures quite useless for flight and of very limited use in
thermoregulation. This suggests that the lines do not represent feathers.
最后一个反驳是建立在羽毛的常用功能是为了帮助动物飞行或者调解内部温度这样一个事
实的基础之上。但是,被中华龙鸟身上这些条纹所表示的结构大部分分布在它的脊椎骨和尾
巴上。而这可能使得这种结构对于飞行起不到什么作用并且也并不怎么有助于温度调节。这
一切都表明这些条纹并不能代表羽毛。
阅读部分需要提取的观点是:
Main Point:中华龙鸟化石中的细纹图案并不代表该龙鸟有翅膀
- Sub Point 1:这些细纹是龙鸟死后皮肤组织腐烂形成的
- Sub Point 2:细纹也可能是龙鸟身体结构中的褶边的化石遗迹
- Sub Point 3:细纹的分布位置按时它不能起到羽毛的作用(如调节温度或辅助飞行)
Listening: The evidence that the lines in the Sinosauropteryx fossil represent feathers is very strong. The
arguments of the critics are unconvincing.
有关细纹是羽毛的代表的证据非常有力,而反对者的言论则显得没那么有信服力了。
First, it is unlikely that the lines are a result of the decomposition of the dinosaur’s skin, because
we don’t see any such decomposition in the fossils of other animals buried at the same site. In
fact, the fossils of many other animals buried at the site show evidence that their functional skin
structures have been beautifully preserved in volcanic ash. The well-preserved condition of the
other fossils makes it likely that the Sinosauropteryx’s lines are also well-preserved functional
structures, possibly feathers, and that they are not fibers caused by decomposition.
首先,细纹并不是恐龙皮肤分解的结果,因为掩埋在同一地区的其他动物的化石中并没有发
生这种分解。事实上,其他动物的化石显示出它们的功能性皮肤组织曾经被很好的保存在火
山灰中。其他动物化石的良好保存状况很可能意味着龙鸟的细纹也是被良好保存的功能型结
构——比如羽毛。而并不是如阅读所说,这些羽毛是分解而得到的纤维。
Second, the idea that the lines represent frills… well, there is an important chemical difference
between feathers and frills. Feathers contain a great deal of a protein called Beta-keratin. Frills,
on the other hand, do not contain beta-keratin. Our chemical analyses suggest that the
Sinosauropteryx structures did contain beta-keratin. So that indicates that the structures were
feathers, not frills.
至于阅读中所说的细纹代表褶边的观点。事实上,羽毛和褶边两者含有不同的化学成分。羽
毛中含有大量的名为Beta-keratin 的蛋白质。然而褶边没有。我们的化学分析表明龙鸟结构
中含有Beta-keratin。这也就意味着细纹结构是羽毛,而不是褶边。
Third, feathers can be used for other functions than flight and thermoregulation. Think of a bird,
like peacock, for example. The peacock has long, colorful feathers in its tail. And it displays its tail
in order to attract a mate. That’s a distinct function of feathers called the display function.
Recently, we have been able to do analyses on the Sinosauropteryx structures that show us that
the structures were colorful. They were orange and white. The fact that they were colorful
strongly supports the idea that they were feathers that this dinosaur use for display.
最后,羽毛除了被用来辅助飞行和调节体温之外,还具备其他的功能。让我们来考虑一种鸟,
比如孔雀。孔雀的尾巴上有很长的、彩色的羽毛。它通过展示这些羽毛来吸引异性从而进行
交配。这是羽毛的一个很特别的功能——展示功能。最近,我们通过对龙鸟结构的分析发现
它的细纹结构就是彩色的,主要为橘色和白色。这证明了龙鸟的羽毛是被龙鸟用来展示自己
的。
听力部分需要提取的观点是:
- Sub Point 1:同一地区的其他动物花式结构完好无损,因此龙鸟的化石结构也不可能发生
分解
- Sub Point 2:羽毛中含有一种蛋白质,而褶边中不含。但是龙鸟结构中却又那种蛋白质
- Sub Point 3:羽毛还可以发挥其他功能,比如展示功能
Sample Answer
The reading passage refutes the idea that the lines in the Sinosauropteryx fossil indicated a
feathered dinosaur by demonstrating several counterarguments. The lecturer, however, is
strongly convinced that lines could represent feathers through addressing the questions
advanced by the reading.
To start with, according to the reading, those lines may derive from decomposition of a died
dinosaur’ skin instead of being part of a living one. The lecturer does not believe this point for
the reason that other animals’ fossils that are buried at the same site have not shown such kind
of decomposition; instead, their functional skin structures have been perfectly preserved in the
volcanic ash. Therefore, these lines are likely to be well-preserved feathers instead of fibers.
Moving on, the reading proposes that the lines may be the frills rather than remains of feathers.
The listening argues this is not true. She further explains that there is an apparent chemical
difference between feathers and frills. Feathers contain protein called beta-keratin while frills do
not.And the chemical analysis suggested that Sinosauropteryx’s structures contain protein
beta-keratin.
Last but not least importantly, the reading puts emphasis on such a fact that lines around the
backbone and the tail of the Sinosauropteryx cannot play the role of helping it fly or regulating its
body temperature but common feathers have these functions. The lecturer, by contrasts
mentions other functions of the feathers by using peacock as an example. The peacock has
colorful feathers in its tail to attract the mate. Recent analysis has found that Sinosauropteryx’s
structures are also colorful, which can also be used for display.
  以上是托福TPO31写作范文,希望对考生能够有所帮助。