托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

托福TPO28听力解析

2014-10-21 13:57| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 上海环球托福为大家带来TPO28听力原题加解析,希望对大家有所帮助。
上海环球托福春季班
    下面是环球教育老师为考生带来的托福TPO28听力解析,更多托福TPO信息尽在托福TPO频道。
Section 1
Conversation 1
1、(0.26-0.48)Professor:So let’s get started. Your paper on John Dewey’s political philosophy has a few issues I like to cover. You get great biographical sketches in the beginning. OK, but then you get to his political philosophy. I don’t think you have done enough to situate his philosophy within the time period. In other words, you haven’t connected his philosophy to the thinking of other intellectuals of the time.
教授说学生的paper并没有很好的将J.D的政治哲学与同时代其他知识分子的哲学所联系起来,也就是paper的organization有问题
 
2、(0.12-0.22)Student: I’m so sorry I’m late Professor Mills. I have just been to students’ medical center. I pushed my ankle playing soccer this morning. It takes longer than I expected to see the doctor.
同义转换
 
 
3、(0.48-0.56)Student: So I haven’t catch the most critical influences, the influences that were most significant to his political thinking?
Professor: Exactly.
 
(1.30-1.50)Professor: Yes, revised.Let me ask, when you finished writing, did you go back and ask yourself if all the material was relevant?
Student: Well. no.
Professor: I do think there are areas that can be cut. I guess what I am saying is your paragraphs are really presenting in logical order. The direction of your argument is not crystal-clear, and there is some unnecessary material getting in the way.
 
(2.13-2.30)Professor: It looks like you get have mixed up with another reference system.
Student: Oh, yeah. I used something different in high school. It’s so confusing when switching to a new system.
I know. But remember, everything needs to be consistent when comes to referencing. It’s a very important academic convention.
教授认为学生的paper没有描述对Dewey政治思考最重要的影响,应该添加,对应A选项。
教授认为paper的reference不够consistent,来自于不同的systems,对应D选项
paper中有不必要的材料,应该被cut,对应C选项
 
 
 4、(2.32-2.47) Professor: Oh, also, I want to ask you, will you be in the political science club meeting Saturday?
Student: Definitely, the topic is John Dewey.
Professor: Yes. Are you interested in meeting part of the discussion? Tom is looking someone to help out. I think you have a lot to contribute.
Student: That will be fun. I’ ll give them a call.
教授问对讨论会感兴趣吗,对应C选项
 
 
 5、重听部分:Let me ask, when you finished writing, did you go back and ask yourself if all the material was relevant?
教授问学生在完成写作后有没有回去重新看看材料是否都有关联,即review his own work
 
 
 
Lecture 1

1、lecture一直在讲foundationalism,Locke和Descartes,对应的也就是two philosophers和foundation knowledge claims
 
 
2、(0.44-1.08) Take knowledge as a house, you need a solid foundation on which you build your house. And if you have a strong foundation, your house is more likely to be solid. Well, foundationalists think the same thing is true of knowledge. If you have a solid base for your knowledge claims, then your knowledge structure is more likely to be strong. Well, true.
professor说foundationalists认为如果有solid base for knowledge,那么structure(对应选项中的organization of human knowledge)也会更strong,与修建房子同理,对应A选项
 
 
3、(1.34-2.01)Professor: Locke’ viewpoint essentially is when humans were born, their minds were like blank slakes. That is, we don’t have any kind of knowledge when we were born. We get our knowledge from our senses, you know, taste, touch, smile, sight hearing. So when we look at the world, first is the baby’s, then as we grow, that’s where our knowledge comes from. Our senses, our experiences serve as the foundation for our knowledge.
foundation对应题干中的basic type of knowledge,Locke认为这些基础知识来自于人对外界的感知,也就是senses
 
 
 4、(2.14-2.28)Professor: Descartes thought you must go to much deeper to find foundations. He believed our senses are not to be trusted. So he wanted to find a more solid foundation for knowledge. He began with what comes to be called methodological doubt.
Descartes认为需要go much deeper(对应discover) to find foundations (对应foundational knowledge claims),对应了选项A
 
 
 5、 (3.02-3.11)Professor: So unlike John Locke, Descartes doubt that knowledge comes from senses. He points out that at some time or another everyone is deceived by its senses.
(4.25-4.44)We could be dreaming. And there’s really no good way to prove we are not. So the common sense picture of reality that the world really is what it looks to us. Descartes shows it cannot just be as assumed as to be true beyond all doubt. He does it by talking about illusions. And also, by arguing that we could be dreaming.
lecture中教授提高笛卡尔认为人可能被experience或者sense deceived..也就是experience cannot be trusted,笛卡尔认为我们所感受到的reality也可能是我们在dreaming,不一定是真正的reality
 

6、(4.54-5.12)Professor: To even think I doubt that I exist, you have to exist. And so what Descartes has done is to find at least one thing that he can be certain of he says I exist. And that’s the start. And other knowledge, he tells us, can be based on that foundation.
笛卡尔认为作为知识基础的一定是他可以确信存在的,也就是a belief that cannot be false
 
 
托福TPO28听力解析: Lecture 2

1、 (0.17-0.22)Professor:Today we’re going to talk about particular cognitive ability some animal seem to have.
(1.50-) Now it has been assumed that primates and some other mammals stood alone at the top of higher cognitive evolution. But recently, birds, have been found possess some of the same cognitive abilities.
在开头教授就讲要讨论某种动物有的认识能力, 在开头偏后又明确提出要讨论鸟的能力,并且是何primates相类似的能力
 
2、(2.55Professor: As I said, ,magpies are corvids, and because corvids have these other cognitive skills, researchers want to see if they were also capable of mirror-self recognition, so they give them a mirror mark test, placing a yellow sticker on the bird’s black throats. At first, the magpies only engage in the same social behaviors that other animals do, looking behind the mirror, but eventually some of the birds, while looking in the mirror, catch
 
 
3、(2.24-2.44)Professor: Well, corvids and some mammals have the ability to plan for the future, to store food, for instance, in places where they can find later. It’s been suggested that in fact the Jazz, corvids known for stealing each other’s food, may hide their food precisely because they are projecting their own tendencies to steal onto other jazz.
corvids藏东西主要由两个原因,一是为未来作打算,藏在将来能发现的地方,二是project tendencies onto other corvids
 
4、(4.00-4.15)Professor:But two things are noteworthy here. One, no one has replicated this study. But more importantly, it misses the point, the issue is not whether some abilities can be learned, it’s whether a species can develop this ability spontaneously
教授认为这个study没有意义因为没有人可以重新实现实验结果,而且实验本身就是偏离问题主旨的。
 
 
 5、(4.27-4.42) Professor:But more importantly, many researchers believe that MSR is indicative of other advanced cognitive abilities. Self-awareness, even in its earlier stages, might entail an awareness of others, the ability to see their perspective, to look the world from another point of view.
MSR展现了其他的能力,比如self-awareness,也就是look the world from others’ perspective
 
 
 6、(5.09-5.20)Professor:But there is an area in birds’ brains that researchers believe govern similar cognitive functions. So primates and birds’ brains have evolved along different tracks, but ended up with similar abilities.
灵长类和鸟类动物的大脑从不同的方式进化而来,但是有一些相同的功能
 
 
 
 
Section 2
托福TPO28听力解析:Conversation 1
1、(0.18-0.45)Student: So the first thing is you normally write during the first half of the academic year, right? In your final year study?
Professor: Right.
Student: But I have my students teaching schedule for that time. I want to teach high school English after graduation. So I really need to give that my full attention and I just worry that I won’t  be able to finish my senior thesis at the same time. I mean it’s supposed to be 35 to 50 pages. That’s a serious commitment.
学生说自己在final year的first half里有teaching schedule,
所以不能完成senior thesis,于此便是与professor讨论何时完成最佳
 
 2、(1.20-1.42)Student: So I was hoping to do my senior thesis on Chaucer on the Canterbury Tales. Because that will be obviously useful if I do gone. But..
Professor: But Professor. Johnson...
Student: Exactly. Professor Johnson is going to be taking a bedical to do research in France during the second half of the year. So without him around, I’m not sure how I can do my senior thesis on Canterbury Tales.
Prof. Johnson下半年要去法国做研究,也就无法指导学生的senior thesis了
 
 
 3、同上文,Prof.Johnson 是学生关于Chaucer论文的导师,自然也是specialist on Chaucer
 

4、(1.20-1.27)Student: So I was hoping to do my senior thesis on Chaucer on the Canterbury Tales. Because that will be obviously useful if I do gone.
(1.27-2.00)Student: Well, you can try. Chaucer is the sort of my hero.
学生认为Chaucer方面的研究以后会非常有作用,而且Chaucer是他的hero,也就是he admires Chaucer
 
 
 5、Professor: Well, if you do decide to build this route, I will make that decision soon. And I will use this summer productively.
教授说如果学生决定要选择这个新的topic,那么教授作为他的导师他在这个夏天会富有生产力的工作,那么学生自然也需要做出很多准备很努力。
 
 
 Lecture 1

1、(0.19-0.41)Professor: Today I want to talk about another way light affects plants. I’m sure you all know in physics class how light moves in microscopic ways, and we can only see light when the wavelength of that light is in specific range. Plus, depending on the wavelength, we can see different colors. Well, plants are also capable of distinguishing between different wavelengths of light.
教授今天讲的是光是如何影响植物的,植物也具有区分不同波长光的能力,也就是植物是如何respond and sense光的刺激的
 

2、(1.22-1.40)Professor: Many plants are seasonal. And one way they know when winter is ending and spring is beginning is by sensing the change of light. The time when we don’t plant flower is based on the amount of light the plant senses. Certain plant species don’t flower if they sense too much light and some plants only flower when they senses specific amount of light.
有些植物不开花因为他们感知到太多光,有些植物只有在感受到特定量的光时才开花,也就是说开花与否是植物应对光照的一种方式
 

3、(1.45-2.10)Professor: Plants are also able to distinguish between specific wavelengths of light that human eye cannot even see. Specifically, there’s wavelength called far-red. Although why they called far-red? I mean it’s not really red at all, it lies in the in inner red range of the spectrum. We can’t see it, but plants can sense it as a different wavelength.
人眼是看不到far-red的,所以教授认为叫它far-red其实是有问题的
 
 
 4、(2.28-2.36)Professor: Plants absorb most of the red light that hits them, but plants only absorb some of the far-red light that hits them, they reflect the rest.
植物把射入的红光几乎全部吸收,但只吸收部分红外光,并反射了其他部分,所以吸收的红光要多于红外光。
 
 
 
 5、(3.50-3.58)Professor: A ratio of less red light to more far-red light, would cause a reaction from the plant. It would stop growing taller.
红光比例少于红外怪,红外光比红光比例高时,植物会停止长高,也就是这样的比例会使其生长减缓
 
 
 6、(4.05-4.24)To testify this hypothesis, researchers took some electrical lights, actually, they would light emitting diodes, or LEDs. These light emitting diodes could stimulate red light.
同意转换
 
 
托福TPO28听力解析:Lecture 2

1、教授一上来说,考古学家dream 找到 ancient civilization,很多人觉得这是不可能发生的事情,但是确实发现了,接下来就说的发现的这个古文明并且证据如何证明他是古文明的。
 
 2、A easier一般看见就排除了,C trade的定位点在后面,与site无关,明确排除, D desert是一开始的introduction部分说到的,不在教授讲解的这个例子里边,选择B 
于是跑回去重听,听了半天说的是这个地方曾经有house temple但是后来都没有了,之后人们又新建了很多东西,所以只能有 layers 和 size of the city 是关于当时的信息
 
 3、教授说道GD的时候说了一句amazing,说明教授此文化为非常正面的态度。后边说道找到了珠宝啊等痕迹,说明教授从一开始就要验证的事情就是GD是civilization的证据。  A GD有埃及和China的东西肯定是later不是earlier了 C little in common 就不对,是negative的感觉 D more research没有提到,并且本文强调的是证据
 
 4、重点词在artifact上,后来教授又说道其他的珠宝经过identification也是属于GD的,所以他们对于珠宝制作很skilled

5、这个其实也是很好听的一个点,下边说到一个record关于他们,有两个theory关于他们转移,第一个是因为河道改变,所以他们也跟随其迁移,第二个是neighboring settlement,没有听到war但是还是根据很明显的neighbor就可以选出来,flooding和earthquake没有提及。
 
6、教授最后一个词说的是otherwise,教授总的意思就是给他钱不一定会有什么有用的地方,但是不给我们又不能确定我们会失去什么东西,所以看出教授的不确定。

以上就是环球教育老师为考生总结的关于托福TPO28听力解析,希望对考生能够有所帮助。