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托福听力词汇学科类积累-经济学

2014-06-06 15:14| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 今天环球托福的老师以经济学为例,跟大家分享有关economics相关专业词汇,环球托福老师请大家注意的是,这些词不仅仅是经济学词汇,更是托福考试中的高频词汇。
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很多考生之所以在托福听力考试中听不懂,其中最重要的原因就是因为托福听力词汇量有限,要想攻克托福听力,积累托福听力词汇是重中之重,尤其是要积累词汇的语音识别。

这一努力对于大家做相关学科的学术类讲座非常重要,因为词汇的熟悉可以大大降低该篇的难度系数。

今天环球托福的老师以经济学为例,跟大家分享有关economics相关专业词汇,环球托福老师请大家注意的是,这些词不仅仅是经济学词汇,更是托福考试中的高频词汇。

accounting:会计   cost成本   profit利润   allocation 配置   average平均    Assumption假设  barrier 壁垒   capital :资本   capital stock :资本存量

capital output ratio资本产出比率  capitalism资本主义   supply供给   demand需求  commodity 商品   common property 公用财产

compensation principles :补偿原则   competition :竞争   competitive market :竞争性市场   complement goods :互补品    consistence :一致性

constraints :约束    consumer equilibrium :消费者均衡   corporation :公司   cost minimization :成本极小化    demand schedule :需求表

diminishing marginal utility :边际效用递减    direct approach :直接法   durable goods :耐用品

distribution :分配    economic rent :经济租金    economy of scale :规模经济    exclusion :排斥性、排他性    hypothesis :假说    indirect approach :间接法

inferior goods :劣品    investment :投资    long run :长期     luxury :奢侈品     revolution :革命   Natural resources :自然资源    non-rivalry :非对抗性

ordinary goods :一般品   partial equilibrium :局部均衡   discrimination :歧视    price seeker :价格搜求者    principal—agent issues :委托--代理问题

proportional demand curve :成比例的需求曲线   pure exchange :纯交换   rationality :理性   regulation :调节,调控   returns to scale :规模报酬

law of scarcity :稀缺法则    short—run :短期    revealed preference :显示性偏好   solution :解   strategy :策略   total expenditure :总支出  ransitivity :传递性

variables :变量Welfare criterion :福利subsidy :津贴substitutes :替代品stability :稳定性relative price 相对价格Insurance 保险Contract合约

Verbal agreement口头协议  Repay 偿还  interest 利息   Merchant 商人   Cautious 谨慎的   Paramount 极为重要的   Manufacture 制造  Label 标签

Inform告知  Cost成本  Profit利润   loss损失  Net净的 gross粗略的 Supplyand demand供求  Supply chain供应链    Fluctuation 浮动  boom 繁荣         bust破产

Recession 衰退Depression 萧条Marketing strategies市场营销策略Survey 调查Surplus 剩余Shipment 运输Distribution 分布Retail 零售

Whole sale 批发Franchise特许经营Budget预算mortgage抵押patent :专利division of labor :劳动分工dynamic analysis :动态分析

dynamic models :动态模型direct taxes :直接税depreciation :折旧consumer optimization :消费者优化consumer preference :消费者偏好

consumer surplus :消费者剩余consumer theory :消费者理论consumption :消费consumer :消费者consumer behavior :消费者行为

monopolistic competition :垄断竞争monopolistic exploitation :垄断剥削constant cost industry :成本不变产业

下面在以TPO6 第一篇讲座为例,来看这些托福听力词汇的熟悉对于托福听力的帮助。

Professor
Now when I mention the terms “boom and bust”, what is that going to mind?
Student
The dotcom crash of the ‘90s.
 
Professor
Ok. The boom in the late 1990s when all those new Internet companiessprung up and then sold for huge amounts of money.Then the bust around2000…2001 when many of those same Internet companies went out ofbusiness.Of course, booms aren’t always followed by busts. We’ve certainly seen timeswhen local economies expanded rapidly for a while and then went back to anormal pace of growth. But, there’s a type of rapid expansion, what might becalled the hysterical or irrational boom that pretty much always leads to a bust.See, people often create and intensify a boom when they get carried away bysome new industry that seems like it will make them lots of money fast. If you think that by the 90s, people would have learned from the past. If they did,well, look at tulips.
 
在讲座的开头部分,教师举例讲解了经济发展周期的一普遍现象-繁荣与萧条,语速较快,难度等级高。学生一开始就直接懵了,因为教授的讲座内容一开始就说了这节课的主题:“ Now when I mention the terms “boom and bust”,”而学生不知道boom和bust是什么意思。无形中注意力就会集中于在脑海里搜索什么事boom and bust。

在他们苦苦追寻这两个单词的意思时,简短的开头部分就已经讲完了。然而不幸的是和往常一样,开头部分又有考题的涉及,如

7. What is the professor’s opinion about the dot-com crash?
A: She thinks that people should have realized it would happen
B: She does not believe that anything like it will happen again
C: She is surprised that it did not have more serious consequences
D: She is confident that people learned a valuable lesson from it

其实这道题目是在考核语法的虚拟语气,与过去事实相反,听力是这样说的“If you think that by the 90s, people would have learned from the past.”因此这道题正确答案应该是A.

但是学生如果知道boom一词是繁荣,bust是萧条的话,就不会在无谓的词汇回忆上浪费时间。

这就是环球托福的老师为大家准备的托福听力学科类词汇之经济类的词汇,希望帮助大家有效的备考,同学们也可以试着自己总结一些相关词汇,以便对托福听力的考试更加得心应手,最后祝愿大家都能取得一个理想中的成绩。更多最新最全2014托福机经尽在上海环球托福官网。