托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

托福听力心理学讲座技巧解析与模板

2015-07-31 11:34| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 除了背景知识之外,环球托福的老师为大家细说实用的技巧还有万变不离其宗的文章结构模板。
上海环球托福春季班
    托福听力心理学讲座往往对同学们来说比较难,因为其涉及的背景知识大多是我们不熟悉的,因为心理学是在大学才开设的课程。接下来环球托福将为各位托福考生带来托福听力心理学讲座技巧解析与模板
    一个是关于cognition。我们说本身心理学就是研究动物或人的认知过程的一门学科,势必考题会涉及认知学,通俗点讲就是关于智商的研究。另一个是关于conditioned response, 即我们所讲的条件反射,注意条件反射是后天习得的,在一定条件的刺激下形成的,比如巴普洛夫经典实验,狗听到铃声流口水的实验,而与之相对的概念则是非条件反射,比如膝跳反射。

    除了背景知识之外,环球托福为大家细说实用的技巧还有万变不离其宗的文章结构模板。如下:
 
现象/议题
假设1   hypothesis
实验1   experiment/study/ research
反对    problem/but
假设2
实验2
结论
 
下面以TPO30.2为例说明
6. What is the lecture mainly about ?
A. The difference between cognition and metacognition
B. A study showing that dolphins have less cognitive capacity than monkeys
C. The effectiveness of using food as a reward in experiments with monkeys
D. Research that investigates whether animals are aware of feeling uncertainty 
答案:D 
解析: :教授讲了猴子和海豚也许会有metacognition,也就是 feel uncertainty。通过海豚和猴子的实验证明这个结论,但不是把猴子和海豚拿去对比。
  
7. Why does the professor mention the inability of animals to report what they are thinking ?
A. To emphasize that language learning is an ability unique to humans
B. To explain why researchers must be sensitive to nuances in animals' behavior
C. To point out a difficulty in testing for metacognition in animals
D. To show the need for advancements in the study of animal communication
答案:C
解析: 调查者们一直想知道动物们是否具有metacognition(意识到自己的心理状态)这种能力,但他们测不出来,因为动物们不能说出它们的感觉。
原文:Researchers have long been interested in whether possess this capability but they couldn’t test it. Because animals are unable to report their feelings.
  
8. In the dolphin study, how did the researcher make the dolphin's task increasingly difficult?
A. By showing the dolphin two patterns that were similar in density
B. By playing two sounds that became progressively closer in pitch
C. By producing sounds that were just within the dolphins' range of hearing
D. By introducing a third paddle that ended on trial and began a new one
答案:B
解析: 细节题。原文中说是通过逐渐改变pitch来实现难度增加的。当第二个pitch变得越来越接近第一个pitch,测试会变得越来越难。 
原文:The closer it came in pitch to the first one, the harder will be for the dolphin to correctly identify as it lower.
 
9.  According to the professor, what objections did some researchers raise with regard to the dolphin study?
A. The study did not distinguish between learned and higher-level responses.
B. The dolphin was not rewarded consistently for pressing the third paddle.
C. Only one dolphin was used in the experiment.
D. The results could not be replicated in a later study.
答案:A
解析: 细节题。原文中说海豚实验有个问题,其他调查者反对说海豚的反应仅仅只是习得性的条件反射,也就是说并不是因为它们的awareness of uncertainty使得它们,而是因为之前实验中按“pass”可以吃东西,得到好处这样一种条件反射才按“pass”A选项中的higher-level对应文中awareness of uncertainty 
原文:But there was a problem, other researchers protested that the response is simply a learned or conditioned response.
 
10. What can be inferred from the results of the study in which monkeys did not receive immediate feedback?
A. The researchers based the study on an incorrect hypothesis.
B. Monkeys respond best to negative reinforcement.
C. Monkeys become confused when they do not receive rewards.
D. Monkeys probably have some degree of metacognitive ability.
答案:D
解析: 因为猴子按“pass”不能保证一个快速的报酬,并不仅仅是 condition response,所以这个实验说明猴子也许可以感觉到不确定性。
原文:And this is evidence that it wasn’t a conditioned response, because that response didn’t guarantee a faster reward. So,what does it tell us about animal consciousness or animal awareness of themselves and their state of mind?
 
11. Why does the professor say this?
A. To emphasize the importance of introductory courses
B. To find out whether students have taken a psychology course
C. To imply that students should be familiar with the concept she mentioned
D. To indicate that she is going to review information from a psychology class
答案:C
解析: 重听题。You remembered in intro psychology right? 说明教授觉得既然是基础课学过的,大家都应该知道。
原文:listen again to part of a lecture and then answer the question:
Other researchers protested that the… the opt-out response was simply a learned or conditioned response. You remember intro to psychology, right?
Why does the professor say this?
You remember intro to psychology, right?
 
笔记:                                意思:
meta                                 metacognition
  ∟知 mind                          know or feel their state of mind
study: dolphin
      uncertain
dolphin: high-pitch
        2  high low                  two paddles
        closer↑ 难↑                The closer it came in pitch to the first one, the harder it became for the dolphin to correctly identify it as lower.
        3                           the third paddle
P: learned                           problem: learned表示习得性
Monkey: pattern
        dense
        3
        ×feedback                  But unlike in the dolphin experiment, the monkeys had to complete four trials before they got any feedback.
        ×condition                 And this is evidence that it wasn’t a conditioned response, because that response didn’t guarantee a faster reward.
No                                  Can we really know what’s going on in the minds of animals? No. Of course not.
 
    以上就是环球托福通过实例为各位托福考生带来的托福听力心理学讲座技巧解析与模板,希望同学们可以举一反三,并祝愿每一个同学都可以取得理想中的成绩。