托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

托福听力语用理解题及信息关联题

2014-05-13 20:35| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 托福听力中的语用理解题及信息关联题考查考生基于全文理解以及细节掌握的基础上,对于部分内容当中,讲话者说话意图,态度以及目的的理解。
上海环球托福培训班
本篇上海环球托福的老师为考生带来占了托福听力考题40%-50%的语用理解题 pragmatic understanding及信息关联题 connect information。此类题型考查考生基于全文理解以及细节掌握的基础上,对于部分内容当中,讲话者说话意图,态度以及目的的理解。
 
1、功能类(functional question):
如 why does the professor mention the XYZ Affair and the Jay Treaty?
  Answer: To encourage the student to learn the relationship between events.
需要注意的是,有时部分错误选项,从内容上讲是正确的,但对于具体的题,并不是最好的答案,这就是托福听力,“选择最好的,而不是选择正确的”原则
 
Professor
archaeologists working at ancient sites in the Southwest uncovered pottery and she started copying the same style.
And, well there’s some debate about that/…whether it was her idea or whether she was told to do it.
17. Why does the professor say this: (功能题)
[This text will only be heard.]
Professor
“And, well there’s some debate about that”
  To express uncertainty about the facts
  To criticize the company’s decision
  To explain that the story is not true
  To encourage students to express their opinions
 
2、态度题(attitude or stance
如  what is the students’ attitude about the people he currently works with?
He likes them
对于此类题型,讲话者的语音,语调,以及一些常用习语的掌握是非常重要的
例如:
我们经常会问到,唉,那个教托福听力的杨老师怎么样?
他啊,不错!(坚定)(犹豫)表明不同的态度。
 
功能题和态度题多为复听,摘出相应的表明作用或态度的句子,需要我们判断题干中某些具体单词引申含义或讲话者语气、话外音及相应表明感情色彩的内容。
如:Professor
“And, well there’s some debate about that”
核心词debate,辩论,争论的意思,如果某些问题学术界还在争论之中,即说明,他的最终概念还不确定,因此与debate相对应的就是uncertainty, 了解到这一点,这道题五秒钟就出答案了。
 
 
3、结构题(organizational question
要求应试者能够辨认出讲话内容的要点、细节、例证,注意到表示介绍、结论、话题转换的语言提示,并能够察觉到离题话和插入话,从而把握讲话内容的组织结构。
例题(Sample questions)::
How does the professor organize the information that she presents to the class?
How does the professor clarify the points he makes about Mexico?
 
How does the professor introduce her description of the sounds a chaffinch makes during subsong?结构
  She contrasts the subsong of a chaffinch with the subsongs of other songbird species.
  She compares the sounds a chaffinch makes to those a human baby makes.
  She describes the sound of an adult chaffinch’s full song.
  She reminds the class how scientists define begging calls.
 
相对应的原文内容为:
then those calls—those begging sounds—are replaced by, uh, well…you know how babies—human babies—you know how they make that…baby…babbling sound? Like little, soft, vocalized…murmurings? Well, that’s pretty much similar to the noises that fledgling chaffinches make at this next stage of development…which is called subsong…1分05—1分40
我们需要听到的是老师的疑问句,you know how babies—human babies—you know how they make that…baby…babbling sound?
还有similar,说明什么?比较   compare 或对比 contrast, 而第一个选项显然就是错的!
 
 
4、内在关系题
要求应试者预测所表述事件的结果,得出结论,评价信息,进行准确的概括,得出具有逻辑性的推测,对一系列事件进行排序,分类,确认某个过程的步骤等等。
In the lecture, the professor describes the steps in AHP. Indicate whether each of the following is a step in the process. Click in the correct box for each phrase.
  Yes No
Establish the goal    
List alternative courses of action    
Select key criteria and subcriteria    
Make pairwise comparisons    
Revise the goal based on choices    
 
了解听力材料,尤其是讲座部分的结构,更多的时候是为了更好的理解整个段子的整体内容的需要,因此在讲授lecture部分的听力方法时,我们会具体的讲解关于材料结构的判断与分析。
 
 
5、推测题
要求应试者能够把握要点之间的内在关系。这可能包括将两个或更多的信息联系起来,用以解决问题,确认要点之间的关系(例如对比关系、因果关系等),或者作出推测。
典型问法:What does the professor imply about X?
 
Professor
--and we have the next step in song development taking place in late subsong, that is, the introduction of plastic song within the subsong--
plastic song
referring to--I don’t have to write that on the board, do I?
21. What does the professor imply when she says this: (推测)
[This text will only be heard.]
Professor
I don’t have to write that on the board, do I?
  The words in the term are probably familiar to the students.
  The term is not important to the lecture.
  The students should have studied the term already.
  The students should have written the term down already.
 
推测题与功能题类似,都是材料中并没有直接交待的内容,所不同的是,功能题要求我们能了解讲话者言语表面意思下隐含的真实意图,而推测题,是要求我们根据所听到的内容去做出最合理的综合,归纳,在此基础上进行推测!