托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

SAT主考单词词汇表A-1

2014-04-28 14:58| 来源:环球SAT

摘要: 主考单词是指在SAT 填空,阅读题目,语法题目,作文中所要使用的单词。对于高中生来说,单词是第一关也是最重要的一关,即好的单词量是SAT 高分的必要非充分条件。环球托福与你分
上海环球托福培训班
主考单词A-1
 
abandon [ə'bændən] v.放弃(OG-T1) (to give up with the intent of never again claiming a right or interest in) ;放纵(to give oneself over unrestrainedly)
【助记】a(不再)+band(联合)+on(表动作正在发生)
【联想】band 联合,音变为bound,bund 等:bandage 绷带,husband(hus 是house 的缩写
+band,husband 就是用条带盖房子的那些人),boundary 边界,abundant 富裕的;on 表示动
作正在发生:burgeon(发芽),don(穿上),wanton(水性杨花的人)
【类反】abandon<>adopt; abandon(完全放弃,而且不再从事)> abort(终止,可能还会重
新开始)> give up(放弃)>abeyance(暂时中止,以后还会启动)>pause(暂停);abandoned::
indulgent(放纵的)
【例句】(1)The novelist shocked his editors by abandoning the book on which he had been
working for seven years and starting over.
(2)abandon oneself to despair 自暴自弃;abandon oneself to pleasure 花天酒地。
abate [ə'beit] v.减少(to reduce in value or amount, make less especially by way of life);减
轻(to reduce in degree or intensity)
【助记】a(构词方式,使表状态)+bate(减弱压制)
【联想】构词方式 a+v(t 一般变为 vi,表状态), be+v(i 一般变为 vt,表使…),en+a./n./v.(使…),
都不会改变动词原来意思,如sleep-asleep, wake-awake, stray(偏离)-astray(游离);fuddle(困惑)
-befuddle(使迷惑),wail(悲伤)-bewail(痛哭), rate(责骂)-berate(斥责),friend-befriend(与…
结交),moan-bemoan。
【类反】abate<>augment, abate:: dwindle/lessen/decline/decrease
【例句】to abate the smoke nuisance in big cities 消除大城市中讨厌的煤烟
abbreviate [ə'bri:vieit] v. 缩写,缩短,简化(to reduce to shorter from intended to stand for the whole)
【助记】ab(to)+brev(简短),使之简短,缩写,缩短
【联想】brief a.简短的,debrief(de(向下)+brief)v 向…汇报情况
【类反】abbreviate<>extend, abbreviate:: abridgement(删节)/simplify(简化)
【例句】Convinced by critics that his play was too verbose, Johnson abbreviated the third act,
making it more succinct.
aberrant ['berənt] a.异常的( straying from the right or normal way);非典型的(deviating
from the usual or natural type)
【助记】ab(to)+err(错误)+ant(形容词词尾)
【联想】erratic(反复无无常的),erroneous(错误的)
【类反】aberrant<>typical, aberrant:: anomalous(反常的)/ irregular(不规则的)
【例句】If such a gene occurs on a sex-determining (X or Y) chromosome, then highly aberrant
sex ratios can occur.
abet [ə'bet] v.教唆,煽动(assist or encourage, usually in some wrongdoing); 帮助,支持
(assist or support)
【助记】a(to)+bet(相信,打赌),一再使别人相信,煽动
【类反】abet(帮助)<> impede/obstruct/thwart(阻碍),abet(煽动):: demagogue(煽动)/ sedition
(煽动)/ agitate(煽动)> instigate/goad/incite(刺激)
【例句】Critics of the welfare system argue that, rather than adding people’s efforts to govern their own lives, it abets their independence.
abeyance [ə'beiəns] n.暂时无效,中止(temporary cessation or suspension)
【助记】abeyance,“又被压死”
【类反】abeyance(暂时停止)<>reappearance(重新出现)
【例句】Yellow fever, the disease that killed 4000 philadelphians in 1973, and so decimated
Memphis, Tennessee, that the city lost its charter, has reappeared after nearly two decades in
abeyance in the Western Hemisphere.
abhor [əb'hɔ:] v.极端厌恶(to regard with extreme repugnance)
【助记】ab(to)+hor(害怕)
【联想】horrible(害怕的),horrify(使…害怕)
【类反】abhor( 憎恶)<>admire ( 崇拜), abhor(憎恨)>detest(痛恨)>hate(很厌恶) >
repel/revolt/repugnant/repulse(反感)>averse(厌恶)>dislike(不喜欢)
【例句】Stated in the words of a famous criminologist, "When men first come into contact with
crime, they abhor it.
【衍生】abhorrent 令人憎恨的;abhorrence(憎恶)
abject  a. 可怜的(most unfortunate or miserable);卑贱的(expressing or offered
in a humble and often ingratiating spirit) (06-05)
【助记】ab(to)+ject(投掷),扔在一旁的,当然给人一种“可怜的“或”卑贱的”感觉
【联想】inject(注射),reject(拒绝),deject(使沮丧),project(工程)
【类反】abject(卑贱的)<>noble(高贵的)/distinguished(高贵的)/lofty(崇高的),abject(可怜
的):: miserable/piteous(可怜的)/lamentable(可怜的)
【例句】(1)The boy felt shamed of his abject poverty.
(2)He has achieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat abject and
ignoble.
able-bodied a. 体格健全的,强壮的(having a strong healthy body)
【助记】able(能)+bodied(身体),身体什么都能,能吃能和能跑能跳,体格健全的
【类反】able-bodied<>infirm(虚弱的)/debilitated(虚弱的)/enervated(虚弱的)
able-bodied:: muscular(强壮的),robust,brawny
【例句】Every able-bodied young man served in the army.
abolish [ə'bɔliʃ] v. 废除,废止(to officially end a law, system etc, especially one that has
existed for a long time)
【类反】abolish(废除)<>establish(建立), abolish:: abort
【例句】Slavery was abolished in the US in the 19th century.
【衍生】abolition,abolitionist(废奴主义者)
abolitionist  n.废除奴隶,废奴运动(OG-T4)
abound [ə'baund] v.富于,充满(exist in large quantities)
【助记】a(不)+bound(bind 的过去分词,束缚),没有束缚,充满
【联想】a 表示“不,非”:symmetrical(对称的)-asymmetrical(非对称的),moral-amoral
(与道德无关的),typical(典型的)-atypical(非典型的),political-apolitical(不关心政
治的);be bound by 由…所束缚,boundary(分界线),chemical bind 化学键。
【类反】abundant(充足的)<>scarce(稀少的)/bare(贫瘠的)/sparse(零零散散的)
be abundant in:: be rich of/be teemed with/prospering(繁荣的)/flourishing/overflowing(充满的)
【衍生】abundant a. 充满的
【例句】Only one flask out of ten became putrid, whereas eleven flasks out of eleven opened in the courtyard quickly acquired an abundant growth of bacteria.
abridge [ə'bridʒ] v. 删节,削减,精简(to make shorter in words, keeping the essential
features)
【助记】a(构词方式,使表状态)+bridge(缩短)
【联想】bridge 桥,bridge 的比喻义即表示“缩短”
【类反】abridge<> protract(延长)/ extend in length, abridged<> lengthy, abridge:: abbreviate/
curtail(缩减)
【衍生】删节版本(a condensed form as of a book or play)
【例句】Because his time was limited, Wong decided to read the lengthy novel War and Peace in
an abridged edition.
abrupt [ə'brʌpt] a.突然的(beginning, ending, or changing suddenly or with a break);陡峭
的(steep)(OG-T5)
【助记】ab(to)+rupt(断),一下子就断了,突然的
【联想】rupt 断:corrupt(腐败的,使..腐烂),erupt(爆发),rupture(折断)
【比较】rupture(折断)vs. rapture(狂喜)
【类反】abrupt:: sudden/ occasional
absent a.缺席的,不在的(not present or available)
【类反】be absent from<> be present at/ be available of
【衍生】absence,absenteeism(旷课,旷工,malinger)
abscission n. 切断,除去(the act of cutting something off)
【助记】ab(to)+scis(cis 切的变体)
【联想】concise 简明的,decide 决定,决心,decisive 决定性,确定,excise 切去,除去,homicide
杀人,incise 刻,雕,切,incisive 锋利,尖刻,敏锐的,precise 精确,正确的,scission 切断,分裂
suicide 自杀,自毁
【类反】abscission<> integrity(整体,整合),abscission:: amputation(切断)
abscond [əb'skɔnd] v 潜逃(to secretly leave somewhere, taking with you something that
does not belong to you)
【助记】ab(to)+cond(藏)
【联想】(1)cond:condiment 调料(2)潜伏,潜艇,潜行,潜移默化:incubation 潜伏期,
submarine 潜艇,sneak 潜行,be imperceptibly influenced by 潜移默化
【例句】He absconded from the bank with all the money.
absolute  a 绝对的(OG-T2)
absorb [əb'sɔ:b] v.吸收(to drink in or suck up),使全神贯注(take up mentally)
【类反】absorb<> dissipate(消散)/exude(流出)/reflect(反射)
be absorbed into:: be engaged in
【例句】The clever boy absorbed all the knowledge his teacher could give him.
abstain [əb'stein] v.禁绝,放弃(to keep oneself back from doing or using something);弃
权(refrain from voting)
【助记】ab(不再)+tain(拿住),不再拿住,禁绝,放弃
【联想】attain v 获得(at 加强动作+tain→拿住了→获得),
contain v 包含,包容(con 全部+tain→全部拿住→包容),
entertain 娱乐,招待(enter 进入+tain 握住,一进门就被握住手,招待),
detain v 阻拦;拘留(de 加强动作+tain→拿住,拿下→拘留),
maintain v 维持;坚持(main[=man 手]+tain→用手拿住→坚持),
pertain v 从属;相关(per 始终+tain→始终拿着→[两者]从属,相关),
obtain v 获得,达到(ob 加强动作+tain→拿到→获得),
retain v 维持,保留(re 回+tain→拿回来→保留),
sustain v 支持;赡养(sus 下面+tain,在下面顶住,支持,赡养)。
【注意】I like to entertain friends with music and refreshments at home. (entertain 招待)
【类反】abstain(戒绝)<>indulge/abandon (放纵)
【例句】(1)Five members voted for the proposal, eight voted against, and two abstained.(abstain
弃权)。(2)He swore to abstain from smoking. (abstain 弃绝)