托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

托福口语话题parking policies

2014-09-10 17:16| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 托福口语的话题总是有着它们的规律,只要平常做好准备工作就可以游刃有余。下面就由环球托福为大家分享一下托福口语话题parking policies的素材。
上海环球托福培训班
  托福口语的话题总是有着它们的规律,只要平常做好准备工作就可以游刃有余。下面就由环球托福为大家分享一下托福口语话题parking policies的素材。
  Abstract.
  There are two main sources of inefficiency in urban transport markets. First, transport prices fail to reflect the external costs of travel, notably peak-period external congestion costs. Secondly, a large percentage of drivers park for free, particularly at the workplace. Economic theory suggests, in the absence of other market distortions, that efficiency can be restored with a perfectly differentiated external cost charge in conjunction with resource-cost pricing of all parking spots. In practice, urban transport authorities can try various combinations of imperfect road-pricing systems and imperfect parking charges. One example might be the use of a single cordon charge to enter a city, together with a tax on workplace parking. In this paper, we use a numerical simulation model of an urban transport market to examine the efficiency gains from various parking policies with and without a simple cordon system. As would be expected, we show that pricing of parking and road use need to be simultaneously determined. As the level of the parking fee becomes more efficient, or as the number of free parkers is reduced, so the level of optimally determined cordon charge falls. Additionally, by introducing a cordon charge, the level of the optimally determined parking fee falls. The model results show that the second-best pricing of all parking spaces produces higher welfare gains than the use of a single-ring cordon scheme, though marginally lower than the combination of a cordon charge with resource-cost pricing of parking spots. 10.1080/0042098002294
  2. Visitor Parking Policies and Procedures
  Convenient parking is one of the ways our guests form an impression of their visit to our department. Only with your cooperation can we provide good service to your guests, and we thank you very much for it.
  Short-term guest parking (half day or less)
  Computer Science has TWO short-term guest parking spaces, both located just inside and to the right of the entrance gate to the Bryan Student Center Parking Garage IV (PGIV). Because many visitors come and go throughout the day, these spaces are reserved for short-term (half-day or less) visitors. If you have a short-term visitor they MAY be able to park in one of these numbered spaces, but ONLY IF YOU RESERVE IT FOR THEM.
  Long-term guest parking (over one half day)
  If you have a visitor for more than a half day, we will issue a magnetic-strip hangtag permit for the Circuit lot that allows your guest to come and go through midnight of the day it's issued. This may be mailed with sufficient advance notice, but is often issued to the host to pass to the guest.
  How to arrange for parking
  Please write to schedule at cs.duke.edu to reserve a space. Tell us:
  Name of visitor
  Begin and end times of the visit
  Room and short name of the meeting the visitor will be attending
  Email address of the visitor so that we can send them the permit, directions and instructions about using the visitor space.
  Other important info
  Visitor parking spaces in PGIV cannot be assumed to be available.
  If you don't let us know a visitor is coming, we may experience difficulty in helping them with their parking.
  Visitors must park in their assigned numbered spot and display their permit or hangtag prominently, or they may get towed.
  在考试中随手一个话题就想流利的表达,除了必须的模版之外,更重要的就是大家平常时的积累。希望以上素材能对各位有所帮助。