托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

2014年1月18日托福写作机经

2014-04-27 21:48| 来源:环球托福

摘要: 上海环球托福的老师为考生整理了2014年1月18日托福写作机经,包括托福综合写作和独立写作两部分的考题回忆,以及写作要点分析和结构参考。
上海环球托福春季班
上海环球托福的老师为考生整理了2014年1月18日托福写作机经,包括托福综合写作和独立写作两部分的考题回忆,以及写作要点分析和结构参考。

托福写作机经

托福综合写作

Recaps
本次托福综合写作部分,围绕着bats’ suffering from fungus主题展开,话题关键词为prevent the bats from declining in quantity。本次题目依然是听力材料驳斥阅读材料,对等关系明确,所涉及知识面没有触及专业性,难度处于intermediate level。
 
About Reading Material
篇章回忆
主要观点 : Three acts should be performed for preventing bats from declining in quantity
分论点 1:People should seldom go to bat caves, in that they spread fungus to the bats.
分论点 2:Scientists can find out the solution through studying the bats in Europe which can resist fungus.
分论点 3:The way of heating caves can kill fungus.
 
小贴士
根据我们综合写作所需阅读材料信息,我们主要是提取出阅读文章的观点句,提取观点句和支撑细节。但是由于考试时间紧张,所以希望能够在阅读的时候就能很快地以笔记形式理出要点,避免在写作的时候再浪费时间从阅读材料中寻找重要信息。此外,我们还要在听听力地的时候记下在写作时所需的观点句和支撑细节,以免在写作的时候把这些信息忘记了。我们可以呈现出如下图的笔记样式:

要点分析
ü  主要观点:在阅读材料的thesis statement中,明确的给出了整个综合部分的题眼“three acts for preventing bats”。因此,考生可以很清晰明确的断定在听力材料中,教授会阐述类似于“invalid acts”这样的相反观点;
ü  分论点1:该论点的驳斥重点在于not go to bat caves,按照前面提到驳斥的基本逻辑,听力材料可能从以下同角度进行驳斥:1)人们即使进入洞穴,也不会带入fungus。2)在其他没有人类踪迹的地方,也出现了fungus。
ü  分论点2:该论点的驳斥重点在于study the bats in Europe,听力材料可能驳斥的思路依旧为两条:1)这项研究很难成功;2)即使这项研究成功,也要耗时很久。
ü  分论点3:该论点的驳斥重点在于heat caves,和以上两点一样,我们依旧可以大胆进行预测:加热洞穴可能也杀死了蝙蝠。
 
About Listening Material
篇章回忆
ü  主要观点 : Three acts mentioned in the reading material are invalid.
ü  分论点 1:The decline cannot be attributed to human, for fungus also exists in the caves that people never step into.
ü  分论点 2:It would take the scientists a long time to work out the solution. Nevertheless, fungus spreads very fast.
ü  分论点 3:Heating caves would lead to bats’ misunderstanding that summer is coming so that they would wake up. However, they would fail to find food in cold winter, and they have to starve to death.
 
About Writing
参考结构
相信同学们已经比较熟悉综合写作的段落布局:
ü  首段阐明两篇文章的关系:绝大部分的题型是讲座完全不同意阅读文章观点,阅读文章观点是xxx,而讲座反驳阅读文章,观点是xxx。
ü  主体段我们可以采取点对点的方法,先陈述文章的观点,然后陈述听力的反驳观点,并且用细节支撑论证怎样驳倒阅读文章的观点,或者把写阅读和听力的顺序反过来。
ü  结尾段我们不推荐写,因为在开头段我们已经详细地阐述了阅读和听力的关系,在主体段用具体细节论证两者的关系,如果再写结尾段也不过去在重复上述观点,比较累赘,且我们写作的时间也有限,仅仅20分钟,所以最好不写结尾段了。
 
开头段 阅读一级观点+关系+听力一级观点
主体段1 阅读二级观点(主题句1)+关系+听力主题句1+三级(细节论证)
主体段2 阅读二级观点(主题句2)+关系+听力主题句2+三级(细节论证)
主体段3 阅读二级观点(主题句3)+关系+听力主题句3+三级(细节论证)
 
词汇补充
开头段适用句型
1.       The speaker raises serious counterarguments against the author by providing drastically different evidence regarding A, B and C.
2.       Whereas the author argues that…, the lecturer holds an opposite view with reference to this issue, whose reasons can be outlined as follows.
3.       While the author exemplifies …, the lecturer offers some alternative accounts for…by citing …
4.       The professor cites a recent study of… It turns out that…, not as the passage indicates.
主体段落的句型
1.       Contrary to the belief in the passage that …, the professor says that…
2.       The professor refutes the viewpoint showed in the passage that… by saying that…
3.       The lecture contradicts\refutes the idea in the reading (by saying that…)
4.       The professor made the point that… The reading, in contrast, held a different view by stating that…
5.       The listening material contradicts the reading material regarding the issue\ problem of…
6.       As regards\ In terms of…, the listening material contradicts the reading material.
7.       Another important point showed in the listening material is that…, but the reading presents a conflicting idea that…
8.       Finally, the professor stated that…, which challenges the standpoint made by the writer who claims that…

托福独立写作
Topic
In times of economic crisis, local governments often reduce the money they spend in some areas. In your opinion, if a local government is facing economic problems, which of the following areas should it spend less money on?
  --Libraries
  --Public transportation
  --Police
 
Recaps
本次托福独立写作部分是从之前常考话题“政府应当对哪个方面投资更多一些”的反面出题,部分同学可能会很激动地看成“政府应当对哪个方面投资更多一些”。此外,即使在审题上没有出现错误,但是考生也容易纠结在“为什么要少投资”上面。所以,在理出思路上存在难度。考生如在语言运用层面(词组,句法)不出现重大及频繁错误,也不易达到Fair(2.5 - 3.5 / 17-22分)级别的分数。
 
Topic Address
该题目可以理解为:“你觉得政府应该在以下哪个方面投入较少的资金”。我们可以忽略掉前面的背景信息。 题目关键词为“spend less money on”。很多同学都会从正面入手,在寻找哪个方面较不重要,然后试图给出三个理由来证明为什么不那么重要。然而,我们平时写作类似题目的时候都是要求阐述“哪个方面最重要”。这样一来,很容易出现思维短路。我们可以逆向思维,把题目转换成“在哪两个方面需要较多的投资,在哪个方面投资较少一些” 。例如,我们选择“图书馆”,思路可以转化为“不能减少在公共交通和警力方面的投资,可以适当地在图书馆方面减少投资”。然后,在前两个主体段中写公共交通和警力方面的投资的重要性,第三个主体段中阐述对图书馆投资的次要性。此外,前两个主体段中均可加入若投资在图书馆所不能达到的效果,与其他两方面的对比。这样以来,同学们就是在重复以前所写的文章,难度降低很多。
 
Referential Brainstorming
从人们的主流观点来说,选取“可以减少对图书馆的投资”
Reason Explanation
Public transportation can offer the indispensable convenience in people’s daily life. Public transportation,such as subways, buses and taxis,can ensure people’s daily schedule for work, study and trip. Otherwise, the society will be trapped into a total mess. Even though most people can afford private cars, the residents would suffer from increasingly serious traffic congestion and air pollution.
The police can guarantee human basic right of personal safety. The police, maintaining peace and order of the whole society, play a pivotal role in people’s daily life. Less invest on crimes will probably lead to robbery and murder frequently committed every day.
The existence of libraries can be substituted to some extent. Libraries function as a place of providing information material for people to study. First, people can secure the material they need through surfing the internet,which is even more convenient, comprehensive and efficient. Furthermore, there are also a great number of other places for studying,like dwellings, schools and café.
  
Related Topics
1. Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.
2. Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Other people disagree and think governments should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth. Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
3. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on developing or buying computer technology. Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on more basic needs. Which one of these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.