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GRE考试的阅读理解如何快速锁定正确答案?

2014-09-19 10:22| 来源:腾讯教育

摘要: GRE阅读理解考查的范围非常广,不像填空、类比和反义那样注重基础和词汇量,而GRE考试的阅读又与其他考试中的阅读有很大区别,所以在技巧方法上也要区分对待。GRE阅读中多见长句
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    GRE阅读理解考查的范围非常广,不像填空、类比和反义那样注重基础和词汇量,而GRE考试的阅读又与其他考试中的阅读有很大区别,所以在技巧方法上也要区分对待。GRE阅读中多见长句,对理解造成很大障碍,然而这一大特点也促使形成了解决GRE阅读的一个制胜法宝--从原文中来,到原文中去。因为长句具有较高的难度,所以出题者会把很大的精力放在对句子本身的理解上,而不像其他考试中的阅读那样主要侧重对文章内容的理解。在实际解题过程中,我们如果真正理解并掌握了这一点,就能提高做题速度和准确性,因为实实在在能从原文中找到证据的答案必定是正确答案。
 
    虽然答案是绝对忠于原文的,但它的出现往往都披着迷惑人的外衣,同时其他四个似是而非的选项也会对考生进行干扰。对原文中句子变形的方法多种多样,变形后的句子所使用的句式和词组搭配常常不同于原句,一般会是对原句的解释和概括,但基本框架不变。一旦正确掌握了原句的复杂结构,选择出正确答案就不会困难了。以下几个例子都来自考生容易选错的题目:
 
Eg1. According to the passage, random failures in automatic control systems are "not merely trivial aberrations" because
 
(A) Automatic control systems are designed by engineers who have little practical experience in the field
 
(B) The failures are characteristic of systems designed by engineers relying too heavily on concepts in mathematics
 
(C) The failures occur too often to be taken lightly
 
(D) Designers of automatic control systems have too little training in the analysisofmechanical difficulties
 
(E) Designers of automatic control systems need more help from scientists who have a better understanding of the analytical problems to be solved before such systems can work efficiently
 
    本题在原文中的定位为:Absurd random failures that plague automatic control systems are not merely trivial aberrations; they are a reflection of the chaos that results when design is assumed to be primarily a problem in mathematics. 这个句子中间用分号隔开,分号前的部分对应着题干中的问题,分号后即是对前半句的解释,也就是说这个句子本身就是一问一答型,答案就是后半句话,在选择答案时我们只要看哪个选项是对这句话的变形即可。注意这半句话中chaos是一个关键词,that 引导定语从句,而这个定语从句中又有一个关键短语:result in,这个短语是表示结果的,然后看它的宾语是mathematics,而这个名词是不能被替换掉的,直接从五个选项中挑选,只有B说出了mathematics,无疑这就是正确答案了。解答本题时能看出mathematics这一重心之后,根本不需要自己进行任何总结和概括,看出哪个选项是对原句的变形就全部搞定了。我们再仔细看一下B答案,其中rely heavily on代替了原句中的chaos result in,而意义与先前保持一致。
 
Eg2. According to the passage, certain serious contemporary photographers expressly make which of the following claims about their photographs?
 
(A)Their photographs could be created by almost anyone who had a camera and the time to devote to the activity.
 
(B)Their photographs are not examples of art but are examples of the photographers' impartial observation of the world.
 
(C)Their photographs are important because of their subjects but not because of the responses they evoke in viewers.
 
(D)Their photographs exhibit the same ageless principles of form and shading that have been used in painting.
 
(E) Their photographs represent a conscious glorification of the mechanical aspects oftwentieth-century life.
 
    本题在原文中的定位为:Serious photographers variously claim to be finding, recording, impartially observing, witnessing events, exploring themselves-anything but making works of art. 注意anything but 是“决不”的意思,B答案就是对这句话的变形,只不过是把原文中所列出的几种形式用examples概括罢了。在这个例子中还要注意的是原句中的anything but注定了其变形应该表示否定,按照这种理解很容易选出正确答案。
 
Eg3. According to the passage, what did Hargrave and GREen do in the laboratory?
 
(A) They compared the grazing rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory with the natural grazing rates of these species.
 
(B) They hypothesized about the population density of grazers in natural habitats by using data concerning the population density of grazers in the laboratory.
 
(C) They estimated the community grazing rates of zooplankton in the laboratory by using data concerning the natural community grazing rates of zooplankton.
 
(D) They estimated the natural community grazing rates of zooplankton by using data concerning the known population density of phytoplankton.
 
(E) They estimated the natural community grazing rates of zooplankton by using laboratory data concerning the grazing rates of individual zooplankton species.
 
    本题在原文中的定位为:Studies by Hargrave and GREen estimated natural community grazing rates by measuring feeding rates of individual zooplankton species in the laboratory and then computing community grazing rates for field conditions using the known population density of grazers. 原句比较复杂,并且使用and then介绍操作顺序,在理解原句时要分清主要动作和次要动作,而选项中给出的句子都非常短,也就是要对原句进行压缩,找出主要动作。理解了这种变形之后,不难发现正确答案为E。
 
    通过以上三个例子的解析我们可以看出GRE阅读并没有想象中的那么难,相反,由于很多题目的答案就是对原文句子的变形,掌握了规律之后它较之其他阅读更容易获取正确答案而且不容易发生争议。所以我们一定要牢记“从原文中来,到原文中去”的原则,按照问题在原文定位之后,认真分析原句句子结构,提炼出关键词语,再从五个选项中进行对照,一定能找出唯一正确的答案。
 
    本文详细的介绍了GRE阅读理解选择答案的技巧,参加GRE考试的同学,可以通过本文掌握这些技巧,希望能够帮助大家更好的应对GRE阅读理解考试。