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GRE写作素材之批判性思维

2014-03-19 18:03| 来源:环球GRE

摘要: 今天,环球托福为大家搜集整理了GRE写作素材之批判性思维。今后,还会陆续推荐GRE写作素材。尽情期待环球托福。
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环球托福为大家搜集整理了GRE写作素材之批判性思维Critical Thinking。今后,还会陆续推荐GRE写作素材。以下GRE写作素材供考生们参考。

【何谓批判性思维】
 
Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally. It includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Someone with critical thinking skills is able to do the following:
 
Raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely;
Gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively;
Comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions,
testing them against relevant criteria and standards;
Thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and  practical consequences; and
Communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.
 
【批判性人才的品质】

 
Robert Ennis identifies 13 attributes of critical thinkers. They tend to:
 
Be open-minded,
Take or change a position based on evidence,
Take the entire situation into account,
Seek information,
Seek precision in information,
Deal in an orderly manner with parts of a complex whole,
Look for options,
Search for reasons,
Seek a clear statement of the issue,
Keep the original problems in mind,
Use credible sources,
Stick to the point, and
Exhibit sensitivity to others’ feelings and knowledge level.
 
【批判性思维不代表积累信息】
 
Critical thinking is not a matter of accumulating information. A person with a good memory and who knows a lot of facts is not necessarily good at critical thinking. A critical thinker is able to deduce consequences from what he knows, and he knows how to make use of information to solve problems, and to seek relevant sources of information to inform himself.
 
【批判性思维不等同于争辩】
 
Critical thinking should not be confused with being argumentative or being critical of other people. Although critical thinking skills can be used in exposing fallacies and bad reasoning, critical thinking can also play an important role in cooperative reasoning and constructive tasks. Critical thinking can help us acquire knowledge, improve our theories, and strengthen arguments. We can use critical thinking to enhance work processes and improve social institutions.
 
【批判性思维是社会进步的基础】
 
Good critical thinking might be seen as the foundation of science and a liberal democratic society. Science requires the critical use of  reason in experimentation and theory confirmation. The proper functioning of a liberal democracy requires citizens who can think critically about social issues to inform their judgments about proper governance and to overcome biases and prejudice.
 
【批判性思维助力知识经济时代】

 
Critical thinking is very important in the new knowledge economy. The global knowledge  economy is driven by information and technology. One has to be able to deal with changes quickly and effectively. The new economy places increasing demands on flexible intellectual skills, and the ability to analyze information and integrate diverse sources of knowledge in solving problems. Good critical thinking promotes such thinking skills, and is very important in the fast-changing workplace.
 
【批判性思维强化语言能力】
 

Critical thinking enhances language and presentation skills. Thinking clearly and systematically can improve the way we express our ideas. In learning how to analyze the logical structure of texts, critical thinking also improves comprehension abilities.
 
【批判性思维促进创造力】
 

 Critical thinking promotes creativity. To come up with a creative solution to a problem involves not just having new ideas. It must also be the case that the new ideas being generated are useful and relevant to the task at hand. Critical thinking plays a crucial role in evaluating  new  ideas,  selecting  the  best  ones  and modifying them if necessary.
 
【批判性思维有助于个人进步】
 
Critical thinking is crucial for self-reflection. In order to live a meaningful life and to structure our lives accordingly, we need to justify and reflect on our values and decisions. Critical thinking provides the tools for this process of self-evaluation.
 
【批判性思维包含的能 力】

 
Generally, critical thinking involves both problem solving and reasoning. In fact, these terms are often used interchangeably. But specifically, what are critical thinking skills? They include the ability to:
 
Make observations;
Be curious, asking relevant questions and finding the resources you need;
Challenge and examine beliefs, assumptions, and opinions against facts;
Recognize and define problems;
Assess the validity of statements and arguments
Make wise decisions and find valid solutions; and
Understand logic and logical argument
 
【批判性思维与学校学习】
 

The key to seeing the significance of critical thinking in the classroom is in understanding the significance of critical thinking in learning. To learn is to think. To think poorly is to learn poorly. To think well is to learn well. All content, to be learned, must be intellectually constructed. To learn the content of history, one must engage in the process of thinking historically. There are two phases to the learning of content. The first occurs when learners (for the first time) construct in their minds the basic ideas, principles, and theories that are inherent in content. This is a process of internalization. The second occurs when learners effectively use those ideas, principles, and theories as they become relevant in learners’ lives. This is a process of application.
 
【教师如何帮助学生】
 
Teachers could help students change:
From guessing to estimating,
From preferring to evaluating,
From grouping to classifying,
From believing to assuming,
From inferring to inferring logically,
From associating concepts to grasping principles,
From noting relationships to noting relationships among relationships,
From supposing to hypothesizing,
From  offering  opinions  with  reasons  to  offering opinions with reasons,
From making judgments without criteria to making judgments with criteria.
 

【何谓批判性思维】
 
Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally. It includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Someone with critical thinking skills is able to do the following:
 
Raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely;
Gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively;
 
以上就是这次环球托福为GRE考生推荐整理的GRE写作素材之批判性思维,跟多GRE写作素材尽在环球托福。