托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

2014年10月GMAT写作机经

2014-10-05 18:29| 来源:环球教育

摘要: 环球教育的GMAT老师为考生更新了9篇GMAT写作机经题
上海环球托福培训班
环球教育的GMAT老师为考生更新了9篇GMAT写作机经题,并附上了参考思路。

二十三、换代言人

本月原始
V1.Alphs产品,几年前请了运动员做spokespeople,销量增长30%,近两年销量停滞不前,以前本品的消费者主要是中年及以上人群。于是作者建议转换目标市场到青年人群,请一个最近流行的teen star来做代言人,青年人就跟风买了,销量肯定就上去了。
 
V2.公司市场总监说,过去的campaign很成功increase in sales,在开始4年成功用体育明星代言,吸引了中老年消费者,而后2年sales remained stable。 为了another increase in sales, 公司应该hire 某个乐团代言,因为他们是当下music sensation,来吸引untapped youth market。这样公司就能又increase in sales了。
考古
V1.引言:director 写给 CEO的 (卖 grooming product的公司)
内容:公司四年前请了知名运动员作为代言人,销量上升了,but in the last two years  销量保持不变,如果想要在一次是销量提升,要再请个代言人 。此外,这次要请DC,他是当下最受年轻人欢迎的歌星,我们要将目标人群有中年消费者转向年轻人。
 
V2.Company's cologne has experienced significant sales increase of 30% annually in the first four years of its launch. The company uses advertising campaign with professional sports stars and research found that most customers are middle-aged men. Cologne sale slowed down in recent years and CEO believes that they need to get younger people to use the cologne and he will hire Justin Bieber as their new spokesperson to achieve this.
参考思路
1.错误因果关系:代言人和销量上升。也许香水本身的定位就是中年男性,比如味道或者价位,换代言人并不会产生多少改变。销量不变可能是其他很多原因造成的,比如economic recession等等。
2.时地全等:过去用代言人这招管用,不代表将来还是有用, 也许其他很多竞争者都用这招了。last two years销量不变不代表以后销量也不变。
3.无关假设:歌星一定能吸引年轻人。没有证据支持这种说法,年轻的明星并不代表就能吸引到年轻男人,比如可能一般男生关注明星比较少,或者在男生中其实运动员更受欢迎,换了还不如不换。
 
 
二十四、Cereal
本月原始
V1.一个叫Fiberflick麦片生产公司,说根据22年前他们做的一个调查,百分之64的顾客都是成年女性,人数比男人和孩子都多。但是近两年的研究发现,儿童顾客的比例从16%上升到了25%。公司管理人员就说,应该维持这个趋势。他们的广告本来强调的是这个麦片是可以给整个family吃的,但是因为儿童顾客比例增加了,应该改成exclusive for children的产品。
 
V2.将一个kk的cereal品牌,本来一直是主要产women’s cereal(占60%以上),但是这几年因为children’s cereal(占20%)卖的不错,作者认为这是一个趋势,kk应该开始主攻children,通过广告和一些什么的更改强调点,而把自己和那些产家庭麦片的商家区分开来,获得竞争优势
考古
V1.某一个食品工厂生产一种cereal,之前的顾客大部分是成年女性,达到64%(数字可能会记错),成年男性和儿童的比重较少。但是近两年,这种flake cereal顾客中的儿童比重从16%上涨到24%,因此厂家的营销策略定为:将该产品的包装与广告侧重于儿童,而不是之前那样是给whole family的。这样,在其他厂家的产品都是供给全家人的情况下,他们的儿童cereal会有一个更好的销售量和市场占有率。
 
V2.一个Food Cooperation 20年前开始销售cereal, 那时是的主要消费群体是women,然后over the past two years,the percentage of children who consume cereal increases from 16%to 26%. (中间还有关于family packaging 什么的,忘了。。。)所以这个公司打算exclusively market the children cereal,这样就没有别的公益跟他们竞争然后他们就可以轻松的雄霸市场。最后,当然是make profit啦。
 
V3.一个公司叫做Fieflake经营cereal line.过去一直65%消费者主要是adult women。但是过去两年,children increase16%to25%.因此,公司的新策略是转移正对children.这个公司产品现在的产品包装是对whole family. 别的公司也是对whole family.因此这个公司准备生产children's line这样只有它一个公司生产这种东西可以避免竞争力和增加销售
参考思路
1.无关假设:儿童数量的增加不代表sales 的增长,仅由儿童为主要顾客的cereal受众会减少,因此和现在相比,销售量和市场占有率反而会减少
2.无关假设:你换了包装也不一定能够盈利,因为还要考虑换包装的成本,和广告成本可能大于这种策略产生的利润。
3.错误类别:别的公司策略不一定适合你,而且别的公司都开始瞄准小孩了,竞争就激烈了。
4.儿童食品的主要采购者还是父母,因此广告需要做到既对儿童有吸引力,且对父母persuasive
 
 
二十五、培训新员工
本月原始
之前的寂静上已经看到过了,说的是,一个宣传online interactive self-training公司的brochur是这样说的:“1 online self-training programs make the training more efficient and will reduce the numbers of workforce hours,2 the cost of the online training will more than be offset by the 减少的训练员的的工资,所以用这个online self-training programs吧,棒棒的”
考古
V1.某个公司advertise一个online training program。brochure上的话:“……”,大意是推荐一个online interactive training program,能够让new employees train themselves,这样不会产生lost productivity(因为让老员工train new employees会占用working hours)。同时用这个program会更加efficient,reduce costs and increase profitability。使用这个online program花的钱会被saved下来的productivity offset掉。
 
V2.一篇文章,像是广告,说如果你聘用了一个新的员工,你需要花时间来训练他(doing training program),不然他远远不能达到工作的标准,不仅用有经验的员工训练他浪费了工作时间,而且筛选员工也浪费工作时间(devote employee)降低了产品的生产,降低了效益。我们公司有一款online self-training programs,用这个员工可以自己在家培训,节省了时间,同时the cost of training programs is more than the offset saved money by reduce workforce to devote employee.(这里没理解cost指的是online这个软件的cost 还是原有的training的cost)因此买我们的online产品可以省钱提高效益   
 
V3.有一段算是广告吧一类得话内容是:“企业新雇佣得员工并不能为企业贡献力量,让老员工培训新员工得每一个小时都相当于浪费了一个小时得劳动力,我们得网络教学课程可以帮你培训你们得员工让他们自学成才,这样企业就可以让老员工继续好好得创造价值了啊,因为我们得课程的价格远少于老员工浪费时间教新人所浪费掉的利润,所以企业都应该让给新员工报我们得课程,这样可以增加收入
参考思路
1.上了网络课程不一定就能很快的适应新的工作吗,要看培训的课程对不对口,能不能满足企业的需求
2.自学的时间可能远远大于老员工直接培训的时间,浪费了时间成本
3.让新员工在家学,他们不一定会老老实实学,效果不能保证
2.cost方面虽然课程价格远少于老员工教新人浪费的利润,但是,一个老员工可以同时带很多的新人,可是这些课程是一人一个的,cost谁大谁小,不一定。
 
 
二十六、建健身房
本月原始
说一个市政的经理propose在办公室建健身房帮助降低医疗保险费用从而使达到budget。
In a memo "a research indicates that those who exercise regularly are hospitalized less than half as often as those who do not. So the manager thinks that by providing a well-equipped gym for their municipal employees, the cost of group insurance coverage can be saved by approximately 50 percents, thus balancing the town budget."
考古原题!!!(OG13第108)
The following appeared in a memo to the Saluda town council from the town’s business manager.
“Research indicates that those who exercise regularly are hospitalized less than half as often as those who don’t exercise. By providing a well-equipped gym for Saluda’s municipal employees, we should be able to reduce the cost of our group health insurance coverage by approximately 50% and thereby achieve a balanced town budget.”
Discuss how well reasoned . . . etc.
参考思路
1.调查错误:research既没说年龄也没说对象,无法确定是不是靠谱,也不一定有参考性
2.不一定提供了gym员工就会去锻炼,所以无法确保健康水平会提升
3.insuarnce针对的也许是emergency的情况,即使提高了健康水平也不能保证降低cost
4.不健康也许不是不运动导致的,也许那地方环境污染,水质不好空气不好等等
参考例文
In this memo Saluda’s business manager recommends that the town provide a gym for its employees as a means of balancing the town’s budget. The manager reasons that since studies show that people who exercise regularly are hospitalized less than half as often than those who don’t exercise, Saluda could save approximately 50% on the cost of its group health insurance coverage by providing its employees with a well-equipped gym. The savings on insurance would balance the town’s budget. The manager’s argument is unconvincing because it rests on several unsupported and dubious assumptions.
First, the manager assumes that Saluda’s employees will exercise regularly if a well-equipped facility is provided for them. This assumption is questionable since the mere fact that a gym is made available for employee use is no guarantee that they will avail themselves of it at all, let alone on a regular basis.
Second, the manager assumes that Saluda’s employees do not exercise regularly. Once again, the manager offers no support for this crucial assumption. Obviously, if all of Sauda’s employees already engage in daily exercise, the hospitalization rate will be unaffected by equipping an exercise facility and no savings will be realized on the group health insurance.
Third, the manager assumes that there is a direct relation between the hospitalization rate for employees and the cost of their group health insurance such that a reduction in the hospitalization rate will result in a corresponding reduction in the cost of insurance. While this may turn out to be true, the manager has failed to offer any evidence for this claim.
Finally, the manager assumes that the cost of building a well-equipped exercise facility will not negate the savings realized on the group health insurance. Until evidence has been provided to show that this is not the case, the manager’s plan is unacceptable.
In conclusion, the business manager’s proposal to provide an exercise facility as a means of balancing Saluda’s budget is not convincing. To strengthen the argument, evidence would have to be provided for each of the assumptions listed in the previous analysis.
 
 
二十七、城市巴士
本月原始
作文考到的是八月鸡精第六题“城市巴士”问题,不过应该有细节不同。题目梗概是:某市巴士运营亏损,为降低损失一些线路将减少停靠站或该线路将直接被取消,从而导致乘客想要到达的目的地减少。该社论写道,如果采取这样的措施并持续下去,就没有人愿意乘坐巴士了,巴士系统将完全崩溃。因此最好的使收支平衡的措施是提高票价并保持原有线路。
考古
V1.城市巴士系统不盈利. 导致有的线路缩减, 有的即将停止. 长此以往整个巴士系统就会被关闭. 很多人乘坐巴士, 关闭后会对众多人造成不便. 所以为了众多乘车人的利益, 应该提高巴士票价格, 以保证巴士系统正常运营.
 
V2.政府取消bus routes市的bus system的收入没法补足成本,所以越来越多bus线路停运,不停运的线路也减少了停靠的stop数量。作者提出要提高bus fares来增加funding,这样就能解决问题。(攻击点:提高bus fares未必带来融资,passengers可能不买账转而放弃bus去使用其他public transportation;提高bus fares未必就是最优的,因为可能是bus本身的operating inefficiency导致incurred costs过高,这样的话分析成本并减少成本才是最优的)
 
V3.一个地区的公交公司成本太高收入太低,因此政府决定取消一些routes的公交。而这些线路的公交的取消将导致许多乘客没有access到达一些destination。并且如果这种取消公交线路的trend 继续,将使整个公交系统消失,从而损害了那些常用公交作为交通工具的人的利益。因此,为了使得大众的利益最大化,政府必须维持现有的公交状态
 
V4.我的有变体。前面大致条件不变,“因此政府决定取消一些routes的公交”变成政府决定减少一些不常使用的线路,使得有的人不能到达destination。“记得一定有eliminate和destination这两个词。最后一句变成:所以政府应该increase the bus fare in order to maintain service                      
参考思路
1.无关因果。取消停靠站或线路不一定就导致accessible destinations减少,因为可以在现有重合线路上增加停靠站。
2.错误假设,即采取缩减线路措施将导致整个巴士系统崩溃。巴士有其不可替代性, 该坐公交的人还是会坐公交, 地铁线路更少,出租车太贵,自行车太慢。
3.作者提出提高票价就一定能保持收支平衡缺乏证据,因为一些乘客可能选择别的交通工具。
4.政府决策时要考虑成本和收益,如果在公交上花费太多可能会影响其他基础设施的建设等
 
 
二十八、Renewable Energy
本月原始
V1. AWA讲一个mine technology 公司的利润和股价最近都下跌了,然后其管理者提出一个strategy说要想renewable energy technology corporations 学习,说这个renewable energy在前几年一直发展很好,所以该公司也应该采取这个措施,这样的话就能保证利润和股价不下跌
 
V2.作文:一个叫Blastcom的公司最近想要改变研究方向,因为profit是下降,准备转向renewable energy。原因是renewable energy 一直在发展而且有几家研究renewable energy的公司取得了成功。所以作者就认为B公司如果shift以后,无论遇到什么困境,profit都可以保证。
 
V3. 作文 Blastcom公司从原来的什么industry转到renewable industry的那个,过去几年renewable 经历了一个booming,现在已有三个什么公司都很successful,所以Blastcom 如果进入这个市场,也会profit而且股价上涨。
考古
V1.公司研究方从mining technology到renewable energy Blastcom Corporation的一封给stockholders的newsletter. 发现mining technology had a big drop last year.作为能源公司, 它们打算要have scientists 把研究efforts全部转移到renewable energy technology research. 然后说其他研究新能源的公司近年盈利,所以他们打算转移研究方向.结尾是guarantee no decline关键字来说服stockholders 买stock.                   
 
V2.one corporation's profits and stocks prices fell in recent years, so advise to switch research efforts from mining technology to new renewable energy technology, because the profits and stocks prices of the new renewable energy  一直稳定 or 上升 in recent years, so the switch will guarantee the success of the corporation in the future.
 
V3.由于全球对mining technology的需求降低,导致the declining of Blastcom corporation's profits and stock prices. So Blastcom 打算让其科学家把研究方向从mining technology switch到renewable energy  technology,由于 renewable industry is blooming and several other renewable energy companies have made a success, thus Blastcom will also be successful in this field and therefore keep its profits and stock prices safe from declining.
 
V4.Due to the decline demand of the mining technology, all the related corporations are suffering form decline of profit and sales this year, including Blastcom Corporation. Blastcom Corporation is considering adopting one growth strategy: to shift some of the researchers from mining technology to the renewable energy technology, the demand for the renewable energy such as solar energy. Some of the prominent companies which market the renewable energy are successful in recent years. Therefore, it is guaranteed that company Blastcom will also be successful in the future by providing renewable energy
参考思路
1.错误类比:别家公司做renewable energy成功不代表B公司也会成功
2.就算renewable energy整个行业都在发展,也不能代表这个行业里面的每家公司都盈利
3. Profit的影响因素很多,即使专业之后profit有好转,也无法保证无论遇到什么困境,只要在renewable energy行业里profit都不会受影响
4.无因果关系:其他研究新能源的公司盈利不是因为他们的研究,可能是其他原因,比如前几年国家政策支持等等
5. 就算Blastcom Corporation转移研究方向能够guarantee  no decline,也不代表stockholders一定要选他们,其他的公司还能够guarantee increase呢
 
 
二十九、Citrus Fruit
本月原始
题目见过,主要内容是近11一年一种叫Citrus fruit的水果价格上涨,从一开始的5分钱涨到30分,但是过去11年里有不利于这种水果生长的气候的年份只有一年,所以有人就认为是种水果的农户应该对价格上涨负责,政府应该出台法律来控制,平易价格
考古原题!!!(OG13第91)
The following is taken from an editorial in a local newspaper:
"Over the past decade, the price per pound of citrus fruit has increased substantially. Eleven years ago, Megamart charged 15 cents a pound for lemons, but today it commonly charges over a dollar a pound. In only one of these last 11 years was the weather unfavorable for growing citrus crops. Evidently, then, citrus growers have been responsible for the excessive increase in the price of citrus fruit, and strict pricing regulations are needed to prevent them from continuing to inflate prices."
Discuss how well reasoned ... etc.
 
当地报纸的社论:
过去的10年里,桔类水果的价格实际上上升了。11年前,Megamart每个柠檬要价5分,现在一般要价为30分一个。过去11年只有一年不适合桔类水果生长。显然,柑桔种植者应该对桔类水果价格过度上涨负责。为防止他们继续哄抬价格规范价格规定很有必要。
天气状况不是影响产量的唯一因素,害虫的情况,土壤等自然环境,还有竞争者的存在,甚至管理水平等。另外产量也不应该是提价的唯一因素,完全有可能是整体通货膨胀,还有成本的提升的。
参考思路
1. Causal oversimplification:天气并不是唯一影响因素,比如环境保护,加工价格上升,人力成本上升,或者通货膨胀,Monetary inflation, increased distribution and labor costs, or alterations in supply and demand conditions the growers’desire for increased profits.
2. 充分条件: Only way to combat increased price is through government intervention.
3. 无关假设:天气好 果树的产量一定高。因为种植柑橘的农民已经动用了可用的资源了,产量无法再多
4. 错误类别 or Hasty generalization:柠檬是不是可以橘类水果类比,或者说,柠檬有其特殊性,譬如柠檬都是进口的,比较贵。
参考例文
In this editorial the author argues for the imposition of strict pricing regulations in order to prevent citrus growers from continued inflation of prices of citrus fruit. The need for such regulation is supported by the author’s contention that citrus growers have been unnecessarily raising prices of citrus fruit in the past. The evidence for this allegation is the fact that the price of lemons at Megamart has increased from 15 cents per pound to over a dollar a pound during the preceding 11-year period. The author maintains that this increase is unjustifiable because weather conditions have been favorable to citrus production in all but one of those years. This argument is flawed for several reasons.
First and foremost, the author assumes that the only factor that influences the price of citrus fruit is the weather. Other factors such as monetary inflation, increased distribution and labor costs, or alterations in supply and demand conditions are completely ignored as possible sources for the increase. The charge that citrus growers have unnecessarily raised prices can be sustained only if these and other possible factors can be completely ruled out as contributing to the price increases. Since the author fails to address these factors, the recommendation calling for strict pricing regulations can be dismissed out of hand as frivolous.
Second, the author assumes that the only way to combat increased prices is through government intervention. In a free enterprise system many other means of affecting the pricing of goods are available. For example, boycotting a product and thereby influencing supply and demand conditions of the commodity is an effective means of influencing the price of the product. In a free market economy the call for price regulation by the government should occur only when all other means to rectify the problem have been exhausted.
In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument it would be necessary to show that the only factor influencing the price increases is the growers’ desire for increased profits.
 
 
三十、美食书店
本月原始
V1. 大概意思是一家叫Food for Thought 的书店之前开展了一些cooking demostration,请了一些expert等等,利润一直很稳定。但是owner觉得要是adopt 大型连锁书店或Internet bookstore 提供一些no profit 的best-seller的书,会更加吸引顾客,以此来提高利润。因此我们也应该提供一些discount on best-sellers,同时discontinue 现有的cooking demonstation to offset the discount costs.这样的策略能吸引更多的顾客,从而增长利润。
 
V2.作文: 一个书店自从在里面加了现场烹饪后,收入很稳定,说明大家喜欢边看书边学烹饪。所以老总决定扩大规模,推广这个方法。
考古
V1.说一个书店近来年靠烧菜的书越办越好,作者认为应该要实行一个政策。highly discount一本书,thought of food,来统治市场,因为很多大书店和网上书店就这么做。而且discount 的损失可以通过high sales来弥补
 
V2.Food and Thought是一家本地书店(local owned bookstore),过去经营得很不错,自从在店里请名厨来进行现场美食制作并在书店里设了一个餐吧以来,盈利一直增长。(作者认为)我们还可以使未来的盈利增长得更漂亮。大型连锁书店和网络书店(major bookstore chains and internet bookstores)都采用这样的策略:对畅销书(best-sellers)给很高的折扣,以吸引顾客,带动其他品类的销售。因此我们也应该对bestseller打折,并停止(discontinue)店里现有的美食活动以平衡开支(cost)。这样的策略肯定能够让我们获得更多的顾客,实现利润增长。
 
V3.A local bookstore specializing in cooking books has a featured in-store strategy that it always make a demonstration of food. the owner proposes that since its profit is steady for several years, it should cancel this strategy and try the strategy the major bookstore chains and internet bookstore have. They discount their best-selling books to non-profit and , in order to attract new customers and outsell their competitors. if folllowing this strategy, the local bookstore will increase profit.
参考思路
1.错误类比:bookstores chains & internet bookshops与我们这家cook 相关的bookstore是不一样的。买的书籍,客户群什么的,都没有具体信息,所以在前两者中表现好的在这里不一定好,况且作者也没有说前向两者学习是不是真的对他们有效地方式。吸不吸引顾客值得怀疑
2.无端假设:现在的profit well,但是凭什么说改变了会更好?影响profit的因素除了收入也有成本,所以直接假设新的做法更好考虑的太片面了
3.按照别人模式改变,不突出自己的特色,反而可能丧失已经具备的优势
4.非此即彼:除了这个办法没有其他更好的了么
 
 
三十一、Green Tree提高业绩
本月原始
V1.一家叫Greentree的公司,sales达到了顶峰但是profit却在下滑,管理层觉得应该要cut cost啦,但是公司大部分顾客是高端客户,所以要做到cut cost的时候不能让公司形象变low。然后提出通过lay off employees in 10 stores and eliminate luxury displays and free samples来cut costs。(好像还有一句是为了保持住高端大气上档次的企业形象,还要在店门口摆展览也不什么的,忘了- -)。 第二个措施是要partner with Cabarbet Coffee Cafe,这家咖啡店就在Greentree店铺的附近。因为一个recent survey showed Greentree and Cabarbet吸引的顾客很相似,所以和这家cafe合作可以增加new customers,继而增加sales和profit。
考古
V1.说是一个商店的一个计划要达到更高的销量和利润。计划减低成本的同时不影响顾客对luxury的体验。每个店减少十个员工,不要免费sample和昂贵的dispaly,另外与一个咖啡店合作。
 
V2.一个grocery 的新策略,所在城市的消费者倾向于买luxury物品,(中间还有一个啥原因,忘记了……)商家为了节约成本决定裁掉10%的雇员和减掉一些奢侈品的推广费用还是啥的……同时为了保持消费者的奢侈品购买需求,他们决定和一个咖啡店合作,因为一项调查显示咖啡店赚钱很多(好像还有个什么原因,忘了……)。grocery觉得和咖啡店合作应该可以带来利润提升。
 
V3.Greentree Grocer是一家连高级锁卖的杂货店,最近业绩不好。有人提出削减成本来增加利润,削减成本的方式是1.每家店减少10名员工2.减少陈列的贵的商品和免费试吃。并且和Cabaret Coffee Café合作让其在杂货店内开咖啡厅,因为Greentree杂货店和Cabaret咖啡厅的客户群是一样的。这样就能bring the company back on the track to higher sales and higher profits.
参考思路
1 减少的货物也许是best-seller,减少的员工可能会导致超市更加混乱
2.causal oversimplification,解雇和eliminate…不一定会让总cost变少
3.Survey is doubtful,文中只说了a recent survey,完全没提及survey的其他信息比如sample size
4.无端假设,可能Greentree和cafe的customer就是同样一群人,cafe的customers已经同时也是Greentree的了,和cafe合作不能增加new customer
5.最近业绩不好也许是因为有Competiton,或者market as a whole不景气。所以减少成本不一定有利。