托福培训学校-环球托福[环球教育旗下品牌]

2014年8月21日GMAT语法机经

2014-08-26 12:10| 来源:环球GMAT

摘要: 环球教育为考生整理了8月21日的GMAT语法新题机经
上海环球托福春季班
环球教育为考生整理了8月21日的GMAT语法新题机经,内容来源于网络上GMAT考生的回忆汇总。

59.despite sth showing that insecticides......, it remains...(总之说农药没用.但还是保留了什么功能)
我看到那个it 觉得应该指代前面的农药或者使用农药而且需要是单数 就排除了什么insecticides等复数打头的 毕竟后面说还保留一些功能 但是我句子结构整的很不清楚 最后选了一个Using insecticides....后续希望有大神能还原这个句子。感觉这题虽然划线短 但没那么简单
 
 
184.
Japan's abundant rainfall and the typically mild temperatures throughout most of the country have produced a lush vegetation cover and, despite the mountainous terrain and generally poor soils, it has made possible the raising of a variety of crops.
A.   it has made possible the raising of
B.   has made it possible for them to raise
C.   have made it possible to raise
D.   have made it possible for raising 
E.    thus making it possible for them to raise
 
题目释义:Japan's rainfall and the … temperatures… have produced … and, …, have made it …
考点:
1.    主语单复数
2.    主谓一致
3.    And前后并列,在文中为have produced… and have made it …
4.    Make短语:
Make it adj. (to do)
Make sth. Adj.
Make (doing) sth. Adj.
Make N1 N2
选项分析:
A.   and前后不平行(run-on),it无指代对象。
B.   主语(rainfall and temperatures)为复数,和has主谓不一致;them没有指代对象,for them多余
C.   Correct
D.   for doing是介宾短语,不能用it指代,而to do是不定式可以做名词性成份并用it指代,所以make it adj. for doing错误,应该是Make it adj. to do
E.    thus是强调因果关系,并不多余;making和have produced不并列;them没有指代对象,for them多余
 
199. (GWD5-Q4)
The Quechuans believed that all things participated in both the material level and the mystical level of reality, and many individual Quechuans claimed to have contact with it directly with an ichana (dream) experience.
A.   contact with it directly with
B.   direct contact with it by way of
C.   contact with the last directly through
D.   direct contact with the latter by means of    
E.    contact directly with the mystical level due to
 
题目释义:Q believed that all things participated in both A and B, and many Q claimed to have direct contact with the latter by means of…
考点:
词性,固定搭配
1.    通过…方式:through… /by means of…/with…/by way of…
选项分析:
A.       it指代不清;directly有修饰contact或with an ichana experience的歧义:修饰contact时意为通过ichana来直接接触,修饰with短语意为只能通过ichana来接触(不一定是直接接触)
B.       it指代不清
C.       两者之间的后者应该用latter;directly有修饰contact或through an ichana experience的歧义:修饰contact时意为通过ichana来直接接触,修饰through短语则意为只能通过ichana来接触(不一定是直接接触)。
D.       Correct;direct直接修饰contact最合理
E. due to不能引导表原因,用此逻辑不符;directly错误同A
 
241. (GWD-9-Q39, OG12-131)
Over 75 percent of the energy produced in France derives from nuclear power, while in Germany it is just over 33 percent.
A.   while in Germany it is just over 33 percent
B.   compared to Germany, which uses just over 33 percent
C.   whereas nuclear power accounts for just over 33 percent of the energy produced in Germany
D.   whereas just over 33 percent of the energy comes from nuclear power in Germany   
E.    compared with the energy from nuclear power in Germany, where it is just over 33 percent
 
题目释义:Over 75 percent of the energy produced in France derives from nuclear power, whereas nuclear power accounts for just over 33 percent of the energy produced in Germany
考点:
逻辑意思(logical predication) 平行结构(parallelism)
1.    whereas/while这种连词连接的比较成分不要求含义上绝对的平行,具体见prep 1-211。
2.    1) they, their, it都是完整指代,即指代包含了被指对象的所有修饰成分
**注意仅仅是修饰词,如:
  In Japan elderly people are treated with far greater respect than they are in most Western countries.如果前面的elderly people没有其他修饰,后面时可以用they来指代的。
2) one和that,those是核心词指代。
3) that , one , it 的区别见补充说明。
3.  1) compared with直接跟在逗号后面可以修饰逗号前面名词短语的核心词:
Example:
In the United States, while the number of foreign-born residents and their children is higher than ever, the percentage of the population they represent is not; in 1910 this group made up 35 percent of the population, compared with 20 percent in 2000.
2) Compared with也可以修饰前面整个分句,compared with后面的名词与主语比较:
Example:
     Today, more than 43 percent of Californians under the age of eighteen are Hispanic, compared with about 35 percent a decade ago.
     In the United States, Fifty-two percent of high school graduates go on to college, compared with thirty-five percent in Canada and fifteen percent in Great Britain, Japan, and West Germany.
     One baby in four is now born to a mother aged thirty or older, compared with just one in six in 1975.
3) as compared to/with中as指代前面整句的核心含义:
A recent review of pay scales indicates that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio in 1980.
选项分析:
A.   it完整指代75 percent of the energy produced in France,意思错误;在比较成分前后都是句子的情况下,前面分句是主谓宾结构表达动作,后面分句是主系表结构表达状态,功能上不平行,错误
B.   compared to比较不平行:75%和Germeny比较;33 percent所指代的事物不明确
C.   Correct;前后都是主谓宾结构;介词短语充当地点状语前后对称,位置正确;比较了法国和德国各自的来自于核能的能量
D.   由于in Germany位置变成了修饰nuclear power,就变成了“在法国,超过33%的能量来自于德国生产的核能”;同时失去了比较的意味, 这个选项里用的whereas是没意义的。
E.    句式wordy;it指代不清
OG12-131解释:
Rhetorical construction; Logical predication
This sentence compares percentages and uses the prepositional phrases in France and in Germany to
distinguish the percentage of energy in each country coming from nuclear power. This information is most efficiently and clearly presented in two clauses joined by the conjunction whereas, which signifies a difference between the situations in the two countries. Each clause must identify what the percentage refers to—that is, the portion of the respective country’s energy that comes from nuclear power.
A While is somewhat ambiguous, since it might indicate simultaneity rather than contrast; the referent of it is ambiguous, raising questions about just what two things are being compared.
B This sentence compares 75 percent to Germany; it is not clear what 33 percent refers to.
C Correct. Th e two clauses joined by whereas indicate clearly that the comparison is between the diff erent percentages of energy coming from nuclear power.
D The use of the definite article the makes it seem as though the energy being referred to in this part of the sentence is that of France.
E This construction is wordy and unclear; the referent of it is ambiguous.
The correct answer is C.
补充说明:
that , one , it 的区别--aeoluseros:
I. it/one /that三者均可用作代词, 指代前面提到的名词。一般说来, it指代同名同物; one与that则指代同名异物。
I have lost my umbrella; I'm looking for it. (该句中it就是指前面的my umbrella)
I have lost my umbrella; I think I must buy one. (one在该句中表泛指, 因为my umbrella已经丢了)
The umbrella you bought is cheaper than that I bought. (替代词that在该句中特指“the umbrella I bought”, 以区别“the umbrella you bought”)
II. one与that虽可用来指代同名异物, 但one为泛指, 相当于a/an+名词; that为特指, 相当于the +名词。所以one所指代的名词的修饰语一般为 a/an /some /any; that所指代的名词的修饰语往往是the /this /that。
A chair made of steel is stronger than one made of wood. (该句中one可以换成a chair)
The water in the cup is hotter than that in the pot. (该句中that可以换成 the water)
III. one只能代替可数名词单数, 代替可数名词复数时用ones; that既可以代替不可数名词也可以代替可数名词单数, 代替可数名词复数时用 those。
I like this pen more than that one. (one代替可数名词单数pen)
There were a few young people and some older ones in the house. (ones代替可数名词复数people)
Mary's handwriting is far better than that of Peter. (that代替不可数名词 handwriting)
These pictures are more beautiful than those. (those代替可数名词复数 pictures)
IV. one既可代替事物, 也可代替人, that只能代替事物而不能代替人。有时可以用the one或the ones代替that或those。
The one /That on the table is mine. (该句中The one代替事物, 并且也可以用That)
He is the teacher, the one who is loved by the students. (该句中the one代替人, 不能用that)
He advised the farmers to choose the best seed-heads, the ones /those that had the best color. (该句中the ones代替事物, 并且也可以用those)
V. one一般有前置修饰语, 有时也可有后置修饰语或不用修饰语。而 that不能有前置修饰语, 但可有后置修饰语。
Cook was a strict but good captain, one who took good care of his sailors.
The water in the well is cleaner than that in the river.
VI. it可以替代句中的不定式或从句等, 充当形式主语或形式宾语。one与that均无此用法。
It is known to everybody that the moon travels around the earth once every month.
I found it hard to get on with her.
VII. it与that均可以替代上文全句的内容或部分内容, 而one /ones则不可以(本条为日常语法中常用,而GMAT中it与that无法指代上文全句,)。
He has saved my life; I'll never forget it. (it代替第一分句)
Tom is painting his house. I am told he does it every four years. (it代替前面分句的部分内容painting his house)
Let's say we meet here at three o'clock. That ought to give you
 
 
60."if you are profession (layer and dentist)and you want to sell your business to people from other fields, 你最好展示给他们那些一样的地方, like yours."
like yours太口语了吧?
 
Like和such as的区别请参见第1题
 
61.语法考了好多平行啊,觉得满满的都是平行,各种平行,觉得独立主格什么修辞之类的愈发点很少很少,大多数都是看意思然后固定搭配,其中考到了一个 dept? indept?这个样子的反正我不认识的词是(先用dept代替把)dept to do 还是dept doing
 
 
62.考了个As if放句首,逻辑主语在后边的
 
63.考了feet(foot)用复数be的
 
64.记得几个语法点:
1、requirement 和 require that
2、as opposed to 和 versus to(就是VS那个词)
3、either by.. or by..
4、还有being 有道题,题里两个being, 选项中排除完了,会留下一个being用法正确的
5、millions of
6、considering only(就是考only的位置不能轻易改变)
---by doris.shaw
 
65.语法:考了center的搭配,require的搭配
 
其中center的搭配可以参考JJ第25题
 
66.Yet用法,有一个as yet…这种奇怪的东西,该选项一切都很顺,只有此点奇怪
Not solely… but also…与not only…but also…区别
具体知识点可以参照JJ第2题
Be central to和be the/a center for…的区别
center的搭配可以参考JJ第25题
Require用法,之后加从句
Require的用法,可以参照JJ第6题
复杂排序:Theatre to show plays , written by A & B, plays included B’s experience.
我不是很懂狗主的意思,已经询问,正在等待答复中
 
67.有一题出现了Consist of (答案中有consisting … of, consisted … of, have consisted of... ) 总之就是吧consist of放在不同的地方,加上不同的时态(句子里有until, since这样的区分时态的词)
 
 
68.还有一题题目不记得了,但是选项有 (注意前面有一个逗号隔开的句子):
it cost (确定有)
it costs (确定有)
the cost was (有the 吗?不记得了,不过我选了这个)
that the cost was xxx
… it was cost …that… (这个不是很记得了,反正是和很长很累赘的句子)
 建议大家着重复习知识点
 
69. 说什么没有report说明american eagle有在除了美国以外的地方饲养,但是有人看到它们有visit过什么greenland 岛。。。全句划线。。
 建议大家着重复习知识点
 
70.很多travel agent推荐的亚洲的旅游地,包括有巴厘岛,曼谷还有尼泊尔
建议大家着重复习知识点
 
71.Based on...,...考试的时候我有点忘了based on 后面的主语应该是人还是物了,大家可以留意再复习一下这块。
...,making...就是逗号后面现在分词的用法啦
 
找了几个与base相关的题目(均来自prep08语法笔记)
226. (GWD-4-34) (OG12-28)
 
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.
A.   based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
B.   based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
C.   and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
D.   and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting      
E.    and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited
 
题目释义:Building on …, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on the cultivation of …, the harvesting of …, and the exploitation of … 
based on从句修饰elaborate society; the cultivation of …, the harvesting of …, and the exploitation of …
考点:
习惯用语(Diction); 平行结构(Parallelism)
1. 只有such …as…表示举例,没有such…like或者用like来举例。
选项分析:
(A) such…like搭配错误,表示列举要用such…as;cultivating…, the harvesting of…, and exploiting…中the harvesting of不平行;。
(B)  Correct;harvest做名词时有三个意思:收获、产量、成果,harvesting仅有收获的意思,从OG12的解释中看来,GMAT并没有区分harvest与harvesting,两者都可。
(C)  such…like搭配错误;第一个and之后缺少动词,使得and前后无法平行;the cultivation…, harvesting…, the exploiting不平行。
(D) their cultivation…, the harvest…, and exploiting…不平行;没有必要新开一个分句,显得很累赘。
(E)  based it on “their cultivating”表达拙劣(介词+one’s doing往往是很拙劣的表达);such…like错误;句式结构在本选项里变为了the Mochica developed…, and they basaed on…, their harvest … and they exploited的平行,但是既然四个结构里面三个补出了and,在their harvest前面也应该补出and,但即便补出了,their harvest也仅仅是一个名词,与其他三者不平行;这样的平行结构,逻辑上也不太合理。
补充说明:
1. 词义辨析:
   harvest与harvesting有重叠意义:
harvest:     the act, process, or occasion of gathering a crop
harvesting:  Synonyms  HARVEST 1, cropping, gathering, ingathering, reaping
 
OG12-134
Recently implemented “shift-work equations” based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B)  fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C)  and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E)  and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising
key: C